Advertisement

Mutagens in Cooked Food

  • Takashi Sugimura
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (volume 6)

Abstract

The incidences of cancers in various organs of the body differ in different countries (14,100). For instance, in Japan stomach cancer is the predominant cancer of the digestive tract, but in most Western countries intestinal cancer is predominant. Japanese immigrants to the United States show a decrease in the incidence of stomach cancer with an increase in that of intestinal cancer, presumably because of change in their life style (34).

Keywords

Mutagenic Activity Tumor Promoter Diphtheria Toxin Kojic Acid Heterocyclic Amine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H.U. Aeschbacher, C. Chappuis, and H.P. Würzner, Mutagenicity testing of coffee: A study of problems encountered with the Ames Salmonella test system, Fd. Cosmet. Toxicol. 18: 605 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.E. Amacher, S.C. Paillet, G.N. Turner, V.A. Ray, and D.S. Salsburg, Point mutations at the thymidine kinase locus in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, Mutation Res. 72: 447 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B.N. Ames, J. McCann, and E. Yamasaki, Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test, Mutation Res. 31: 347 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Armstrong and R. Doll, Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices,Int. J. Cancer15: 617 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. Berenblum, The mechanism of cocarcinogenesis: A study of the significance of cocarclnogenlc action and related phenomena, Cancer Res. 1: 807 (1941).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L.F. Bjeldanes and H. Chew, Mutagenicity of 1, 2-dicarbonyl compounds: Maltol, kojic acid, diacetyl and related substances, Mutation Res. 67: 367 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. Bollag, Therapy of chemically Induced skin tumors of mice with vitamin A palmltate and vitamin A acid, Experientia 27: 90 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.P. Brown, P.S. Dietrich, and R.T. Brown, Frameshlft mutagenicity of certain naturally occurring phenolic compounds In the “Salmonella/mlcrosome” test: Activation of anthraqulnone and flavonol glycosides by gut bacterial enzymes, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 5: 1489 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.K. Buenlng, R.L. Chang, M.T. Huang, J.6. Fortner, A.W. Wood, and A.H. Conney, Activation and Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene and aflatoxln B, metabolism In human liver microsomes by naturally occurring flavonolds, Cancer Res. 41: 67 (1981).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K.K. Carrol, Experimental evidence of dietary factors and hormone-dependent cancers, Cancer Res. 35: 3374 (1975).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.M. Cohen, M. Aral, J.B. Jacobs, and 6.H. Frledell, Promotion effect of saccharin and DL-tryptophan In urinary bladder carcinogenesis, Cancer Res. 39: 1207 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.J. Collier, Diphtheria toxin: Mode of action and structure, Bacteriol. Rev. 39: 54 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.C.J. Culvenor, J.A. Edgar, L.W. Smith, and I. Hirono, The occurrence of senkirkine in Tussilago farfara, Aust. J. Chem. 29: 229 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Doll, Strategy for detection of cancer hazards to man, Nature 265: 589 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Esumi, M. Okui, S. Sato, T. Sugimura, and S. Nagase, Absence of albumin mRNA in the liver of analbuminemic rats, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 3215 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Esumi, S. Sato, M. Okui, T. Sugimura, and S. Nagase, Turnover of serum proteins in rats with analbuminemia, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 87: 1191 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Esumi, S. Sato, Y. Takahashi, S. Nagase, and T. Sugimura, A seven base pair deletion in an intron blocks albumin mRNA processing, in: “Primary and Tertiary Structure of Nucleic Acids and Cancer Research”, H. Miwa, S. Nishimura, A. Rich, D. Söll, and T. Sugimura, Japan Sel. Soc. Press, Tokyo, In press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Esumi, Y. Takahashi, T. Sekiya, S. Sato, S. Nagase, and T. Sugimura, Presence of nuclear albumin mRNA precursors In analbuminemic rat liver lacking cytoplasmic albumin mRNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79: 734 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    I.A. Evans and J. Mason, Carcinogenic activity of bracken, Nature(London) 208: 913 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Fujikl, M. Mori, M. Nakayasu, M. Terada, T. Sugimura, and R.E. Moore, Indole alkaloids: Dihydroteleocidin B, teleocldin, and lygnbyatoxln A as, members of a new class of tumor promoters, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 3872 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Fujiki, T. Sugimura, and R.E. Moore, New classes of environmental tumor promoters: Indole alkaloids and polyacetate, in: “Abstract of International Symposium on Health Effects of Tumor Promotion” (1981) p. 14.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Fukuoka, M. Ruroyanagi, K. Yoshihira, S. Natori, M. Nagao, Y. Takahashi, and T. Sugimura, Chemical and toxlcologlcal studies on bracken fern, Pterldium aqulllnum var. Latiusculum. IV, Surveys on bracken constituents by mutagenicity test, J. Pharm. Dyn. 1: 324 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Fukuoka, K. Yoshihira, S. Natori, K. Sakamoto, S. Iwahara, S. Hosaka, and I. Hlrono, Characterization of mutagenic principles and carcinogenicity of dill weed and seeds, J. Pharm. Dyn. 3: 236 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.A. Glanturco, A.S. Glammarlno, and P. Frledel, Volatile constituents of coffee-V, Nature 210: 1358 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T.W. Glover, C.-C. Chang, J.E. Trosko, and S.S.-L. Li, Ultraviolet light induction of diphtheria toxin-resistant mutants in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum human fibroblasts, Proc. Natl. Acad. Scl. USA 76: 3982 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R.S. Gupta and S. Goldstein, Diphtheria toxin resistance in human fibroblast cell strains from normal and cancer-prone individuals, Mutation Res. 73: 331 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    R.S. Gupta and L. Siminovitch, Genetic markers for quantitative mutagenesis studies in Chinese hamster ovary cells, Mutation Res. 69: 113 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Hashimoto, K. Shudo, and T. Okamoto, Structural identification of a modified base in DNA covalently bound with mutagenic 3-amino-l-methyl-5Bh-pyrido[4,3-b] indole. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 27: 1058 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y. Hashimoto, K. Shudo, and T. Okamoto, Metabolic activation of a mutagen, 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3;,2;-d]- imidazole and its reaction with DNA, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 92: 971 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Y. Haslmoto, К. Shudo, and T. Okamoto, Activation of a mutagen, 3-amino-l-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole. Identification of 3-hydroxyamino-l-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole and its reaction with DNA, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 96: 355 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. Heeker, Phorbol esters from croton oil, chemical nature and biological activities, Naturwissenschaften 54: 282 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    E. Heeker, Cocarcinogenesis and tumor promoters of the diterpene ester type as possible carcinogenic risk factors, J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 99: 103 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R.M. Hicks, J. St. J. Wakefield, and J. Chowaniec, Evaluation of a new model to detect bladder carcinogens or co-carcinogens; results obtained with saccharin, cyclamate and cyclophosphamide, Chem.-biol. Interact. 11: 225 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. Hlrohata, Shift in cancer mortality from 1920 to 1970 among various ethnic groups in Hawaii, in: “Genetic and Environmental Factors in Experimental and Human Cancer”, H.V. Gelboln, B. MacMahon, T. Matsushima, T. Sugimura, S. Takayama, and H. Takebe, eds. Japan Scl. Soc. Press, Tokyo (1979) pp. 341–350.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    I. Hlrono, H. Mori, M. Haga, M. Fujii, K. Yamada, Y. Hirata, H. Takanashi, E. Uchida, S. Hosaka, I. Ueno, T. Matsushima, K. Umezawa, and A. Shirai, Edible plants containing carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Japan, in; “Naturally Occurring Carcinogens-Mutagens and Modulators of Carcinogenesis”, E.C. Miller, J.A. Miller, T. Hirono, T. Sugimura, and S. Takayama, eds., Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo (1979) pp. 79–87.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    I. Hirono, I. Sasaoka, C. Shibuya, M. Shimizu, K. Fushimi, H. Mori, K. Kato, and M. Haga, Natural carcinogenic products of plant origin, Gann Mbnogr. Cancer Res. 17: 205 (1975).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    I. Hirono, I. Ueno, S. Hosaka, H. Takanashi, T. Matsushima, T. Sugimura, and S. Natori, Carcinogenicity examination of quercetin and rutin in ACI rats, Cancer Lett. 13: 15 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    D.P. Hsieh, Z.A. Wong, J.J. Wong, C. Michans, and B.H. Ruebner, Comparative metabolism of aflatoxin, in: Mycotoxins in Human and Animal Health, J.V. Rodricks, C.W. Hesseltlne, and M.A. Mehlman, eds., Pathodox, Park Forest South (1977) pp. 37–50.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. Ishii, Y. Yamazoe, T. Kamataki, and R. Kato, Metabolic activation of glutamic acid pyrolysie products, 2-amino-6- methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3′,2′-d] imidazole and 2-aminodipyrido- [1,2-2′-jd] imidazole, by purified cytochrome P-450, Chem.-biol. Interact. 38: 1 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. Kasai, Z. Yamaizumi, S. Nishimura, K. Wakabayashi, M. Nagao, T. Sugimura, N.E. Splngarn, J.H. Weisburger, S. Yokoyama, and T. Mlyazawa, A potent mutagen in broiled fish. Part 1. 2-Amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo [4,5-f] quinoline, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin 1: 2290 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. Kasai, Z. Yamaizumi, T. Shiomi, S. Yokoyama, T. Mlyazawa, K. Wakabayashi, M. Nagao, T. Sugimura, and S. Nishimura, Structure of a potent mutagen isolated from fried beef, Chem. Lett. 485 (1981).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. Kasai, Z. Yamaizumi, K. Wakabayashi, M. Nagao, T. Sugimura, S. Yokoyama, T. Mlyazawa, and S. Nishimura, Structure and chemical synthesis of Me-IQ, a potent mutagen Isolated from broiled fish. Chem. Lett. 1391 (1980).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    T. Kawachi, M. Nagao, T. Yahagi, Y. Takahashi, T. Sugimura, T. Matsushima, T. Kawakami, and M. Ishidate, Our view on the relation between mutagens and carcinogens in: “Naturally Occurring Carcinogens-Mutagens and Modulators of Carcinogenesis”, E.C. Miller, J.A. Miller, I. Hirono, T. Sugimura, and S. Takayama, eds., Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo (1979) pp. 337–344.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    W. Lijinsky and P. Shubik, Benzo[a] pyrene and other polynuclear hydrocarbons in charcoal-broiled meat, Science 145: 53 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    B. MacMahon, S. Yen, D. Trichopoulos, K. Warren, and G. Nardi, Coffee and cancer of the pancreas, N. Engl. J. Med. 304: 630 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    N. Matsukura, T. Kawachi, K. Morino, H. Ohgaki, T. Sugimura, and S. Takayama, Carcinogenicity in mice of mutagenic compounds from a tryptophan pyrolyzate, Science 213: 346Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    T. Matsumoto, D. Yoshida, and H. Tomlta, Determination of mutagens, amino-a-carbolines in grilled foods and cigarette smoke condensate, Cancer Lett. 12: 105 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Mazaki, T. Ishii, and M. Uyeta, Mutagenicity of hydrolysates of citrus fruit juices, Mutation Res., in press.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. McCann and B.N. Ames, Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in the Salmonella/microsome test: Assay of 300 chemicals: Discussion, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 950 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. McCann, N.E. Spingarn, J. Kobori, and B.N. Ames, Detection of carcinogens as mutagens: bacterial tester strains with R factor plasmids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 979 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M.L. Meltz and J.T. MacGregor, Activity of the plant flavanol quercetin in the mouse lymphoma 15178Y TK+/- mutation, DNA single-strand break, and Balb/c 3T3 chemical transformation assays. Mutation Res. 88: 317 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    R.W. Miller, Epidemiology, in: “Cancer in China, Section 3, Etiology”, H.S. Kaplan and P.J. Tsuchitani, eds., Liss, New York (1978) pp. 39–57.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    S.S. Mirvish, L. Wallcave, M. Eagan, and P. Shubik, Ascorbate nitrite reaction: Possible means of blocking the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, Science 177: 65 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    J.A. Moehring, T.J. Moehring, and D.E. Danley, Postradiational modification of elongation factor 2 in diphtheria-toxin-resistant mutants of CHO-Kl cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 1010 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    K. Morlno, N. Matsukura, H. Ohgaki, T. Kawachi, T. Sugimura, and I. Hirono, Carcinogenicity test of quercetin and rutin in golden hamsters by oral administration, Carcinogenesis, 3: 93Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    M. Nagao, M. Honda, Y. Seino, T. Yahagi, T. Kawachi, and T. Sugimura, Mutagenicities of protein pyrolysates, Cancer Lett. 2: 335 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. Nagao, M. Honda, Y. Seino, T. Yahagi, and T. Sugimura, Mutagenicities of smoke condensates and the charred surface of fish and meat, Cancer Lett. 2: 221 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    M. Nagao, N. Morita, T. Yahagi, M. Shlmizu, M. Kuroyanagi, M. Fukuoka, K. Yoshihlra, S. Natori, T. Fujino, and T. Sugimura, Mutagenicities of 61 flavonolds and 11 related compounds, Env. Mutagen 3: 401 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. Nagao, Y. Takahashl, K. Wakabayashi, and T. Sugimura, Mutagenicity of alcoholic beverages, Mutation Res. 88: 147 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M. Nagao, Y. Takahashl, H. Yamanaka, and T. Sugimura, Mutagens in coffee and tea, Mutation Res. 68: 101 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    S. Nagase, C. Fujimakl, and H. Isaka, Effect of administration of quercetin on the production of experimental liver cancers in rats fed p-dimethylaminoazobenzene, Proc. Japan Cancer Assoc. 23rd Meeting (1964) pp. 26–27.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    S. Nagase, K. Shimamune, and S. Shumlya, Albumin-deficient rat mutant, Science 205; 590 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    P.M. Newberne and M. Connor, Effects of sequential exposure to aflatoxin B1 and dlethylnitrosamine on vascular and stomach tissue and additional target organs in rats, Cancer Res. 40: 4037 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. Nomura, G.N. Stemmermann and L.K. Heilbrum, Coffee and pancreatic cancer, Lancet 474 (1981).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    A.M. Pamukcu, S. Yalciner, J.F. Hatcher, and G.T. Bryan, Quercetin, a rat intestinal and bladder carcinogen present in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), Cancer Res. 40: 3468 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    B.G. Piacek-Llanes, D.E.G. Shuker, and S.R. Tannenbaum, N-Nitrosamides of natural origin, in: “Proceeding of 7th International Meeting on Analysis and Formation of N-Nitroeo Compounds”, Int. Agency Res. Cancer, Lyon, in press.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    L.F.H. Purchase, E. Longstaff, J. Ashby, J.A. Styles, D. Anderson, P.A. Lefevre, and F.R. Westwood, Evaluation of six short term tests for detecting organic chemical carcinogens and recommendations for their use, Nature 264: 624 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    R.K. Sahu, R. Basu, and A. Sharma, Genetic toxlcological testing of some plant flavonoids by the mlcronuleus test, Mutation Res. 89: 69 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    D. Sait о, A. Shirai, T. Matsushlma, T. Sugimura, and I. Hirono, Test of carcinogenicity of quercetin, a widely distributed mutagen in food, Teratogen. Carcinogen. Mutagen. 1: 213 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Y. Seino, M. Nagao, T. Yahagi, T. Sugimura, T. Yashuda, and S. Nishimura, Identification of a mutagenic substance in a spice, sumac, as quercetin, Mutation Res. 58: 225 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    J.K. Sims and R.D.Z. Van Rilland, Escharotic stomatitis caused by the “Stinging seaweed” Microсоlens lyngbyaceus (formerly Lyngbya majuscule), Hawaii Med. J. 40: 243 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    M.B. Sporn, N.M. Dunlop, D.L. Newton, and J.M. Smith, Prevention of chemical carcinogenesis by vitamin A and its synthetic analogs (retinoids), Fed. Proc. 35: 1332 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    H.F. Stich, W. Stich, and M.P. Rosin, and W.D. Powrie, Clastogenic activity of caramel and caramelized sugars, Mutation Res. 91: 129 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    T. Sugimura, Let’s be scientific about the problem of mutagens in cooked food, Mutation Res. 55: 149 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    T. Sugimura, The Ernst W. Bertner Memorial Award Lecture: Tumor initiators and promoters associated with ordinary foods, in: “Molecular Interrelations of Nutrition and Cancer”, M.S. Arnott, J. van Eys, and Y.-M. Wang eds., Raven Press, New York, (1982) pp. 3–24.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    T. Sugimura, H. Fujlki, M. Mori, M. Nakayasu, M. Terada, R. Umezawa, and R.E. Moore, Teleocldin: New naturally occurring tumor promoter, In; “Carcinogenesis, vol. 7”, E. Becker, N. Fuselng, F. Marks, and W. Kunz, eds., Raven Press, New York (1982) pp. 69–73.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    T. Sugimura, T. Kawachi, M. Nagao, T. Yahagi, Y. Seino, T. Okamoto, K. Shudo, T. Kosuge, K. Tsuji, K. Wakabayashi, T. lltaka, and A. Itai, Mutagenic principle(s) in tryptophan and phenylalanine pyrolysis products, Proc. Jpn Acad. 53: 58 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    T. Sugimura and M. Nagao, Mutagenic factors in cooked foods, CRC Critical Rev. Toxicol. 6: 189 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    T. Sugimura, M. Nagao, T. Kawachi, M. Honda, T. Yahagi, Y. Seino, S. Sato, N. Matsukura, T. Matsushima, A. Shirai, M. Sawamura, and H. Matsumoto, Mutagen-carcinogens in food, with special reference to highly mutagenic pyrolytic products in broiled food, in: “Origins of Human Cancer, Book С”, H.H. Hiatt, J.D. Watson, and J.A. Winsten, eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York (1977) pp. 1561–1576.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    T. Sugimura, M. Nagao, and R. Wakabayashi, Mutagenic heterocyclic amines in cooked foods, in: “Environmental Carcinogens-Selected Methods of Analysis, vol. 4. Some Aromatic Amines and Azo Dyes in the General and Industrial Environment,” IARC Scientific Publications No. 40, H. Egan, L. Fishbein, M. Castegnaro, I.K. O’Neill, H. Bartsch, and W. Davie, eds., International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (1981) pp. 251–267.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    T. Sugimura, S. Sato, M. Nagao, T. Yahagi, T. Matsushima, Y. Seino, M. Takeuchi, and T. Kawachi, Overlapping of carcinogens and mutagens, in: “Fundamentals in Cancer Prevention”, P.N. Magee, S. Takayama, T. Sugimura, and T. Matsushima, eds., Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo/University Park Press, Baltimore (1976) pp. 191–215.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Y. Suwa, M. Nagao, K. Wakabayshi, A. Kosugi, and T. Sugimura, Inactivatlon of mutagens in coffee by sulfite, in: “Abstacts of Third International Conference on Environmental Mutagens (Tokyo)” (1981) p. 83.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    M. Tada, Metabolism fo 4-nitroqulnollne 1-oxide and related compounds, in: “Carcinogenesis, vol. 6”, T. Sugimura, ed., Raven Press, Nèw York (1981) pp. 25–45.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Y. Takahashi, M. Nagao, T. Fujino, Z. Yamaizumi, and T. Sugimura, Mutagens in Japanese pickle identified as flavonolds, Mutation Res. 68: 117 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    G. Tamura, C. Cold, A. Ferro-Luzzi, and B.N. Ames, Fecalase: A model for activation of dietary glycosides to mutagens by intestinal flora, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 4961 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. Tannenbaum and H. Silverstone, Nutrition in relation to cancer, Advances in Cancer Res. 1: 451 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    M. Terada, M. Nakayasu, H. Sakamoto, K. Wakabayashi, M. Nagao, H.S. Rosenkranz, and T. Sugimura, Mutagenic activity of nitropyrenes and heterocyclic amines on Chinese hamster cells with diphtheria toxin resistance as a marker. In: “Abstracts of Third International Conference on Environmental Mutagens (Tokyo)” (1981) p. 128.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    M. Tsuda, M. Nagao, T. Hirayama, and T. Sugimura, Nitrite converts 2-amino-a-carboline, an Indirect mutagen, into 2- hydroxy-a-carboline, a non-mutagen and 2-hydroxy-3-nitroso-a- carbollne, a direct mutagen, Mutation Res. 83:61 (1981),Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    M. Tsuda, Y. Takahashl, M. Nagao, T. Hirayama, and T. Sugimura, Inactivatlon of mutagens from pyrolysates of tryptophan and glutamic acid by nitrite In acidic solution, Mutation Res. 78: 331 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    M. Tsuda, K. Wakabayashi, T. Hirayama, T. Kawachi, and T. Sugimura, Inactlvatlon of the pyrolysate mutagens Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1 and IQ by treatment with chlorinated tap water, in: “Abstract of Third International Conference on Environmental Mutagens (Tokyo)” (1981) p. 121.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    R.R. Upadhyay, S. Islampanah, and A. Davoodi, Presence of a tumor-promoting factor in honey, Gann 71: 557 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    M. Uyeta, S. Taue, and M. Mazaki, Mutagenicity of hydrolysates of tea infusions, Mutation Res. 88: 233 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    B.L. Van Duuren, Tumor-promoting agents in two-stage carcinogenesis, Prog. Exp. Tumor Res. 11: 31 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    B.G. Van Ness, J.B. Howard, and J.W. Bodley, ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 by diphtheria toxin. NMR spectra and proposed structures of ribosyl-diphthamide and its hydrolysis products, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 10710 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    K. Wakabayashi, K. Tsuji, T. Kosuge, K. Takeda, K. Yamaguchi, K. Shudo, T. Iitaka, T. Okamoto, T. Yahagi, M. Nagao, and T. Sugimura, Isolation and structure determination of a mutagenic substance in L-lysine pyrolysate, Proc. Jpn Acad. 54B: 569 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    E.A. Walker, L. Grlciute, M. Castegnaro, M. Börzsönyi, and W. Davis, , “N-Nitroso Compounds: Analysis, Formation and Occurrence”, IARC Scientific Publications No. 31, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (1980).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    J. Weber and E. Heeker, Cocarclnogens of the diterpene ester type from Croton flavens L. and esophageal cancer in Curacao, Experientia 34: 679 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    F.J. Wiebel, H.V. Gelboin, N.P. Buu-Hoi, M.G. Stout, and W.S. Burnham, Flavones and polycyclic hydrocarbons as modulators of aryl hydrocarbon [benzo(a)pyrene] hydrolase, in: “The Biochemistry of Disease, vol. 4, Chemical Carcinogenesis, Part A”, P.O.P. Ts’o and J.A. DiPaolo, eds., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (1974) pp. 249–270.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    H.P. Würzmer, E. Lindström, and L. Vuataz, A 2-year feeding of instant coffees in rats. II. Incidence and types of neoplasms, Fd Cosmet. Toxicol. 15: 289 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    E.L. Wynder and G.B. Gori, The contribution of the environment to cancer incidence: An epidemiologic exercise, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 58: 825 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    K. Yamaguchi, K. Shudo, T. Okamoto, T. Sugimura, and T. Kosuge, Presence of 2-amiodipyrido[1,2-a:3′,2′-d]imidazole in broiled cuttlefish, Gann 71: 743 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    K. Yamaguchi, K. Shudo, T. Okamoto, T. Sugimura, and T. Rosuge, Presence of 3-amino-l,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole in broiled beef, Gann 71: 745 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Z. Yamaizumi, T. Shiomi, H. Kasai, S. Nishimura, Y. Takahashi, M. Nagao, and T. Sugimura, Detection of potent mutagens, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2, in broiled fish, Cancer Lett. 9: 75 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    T. Yamamoto, K. Tsuji, T. Kosuge, T. Okamoto, K. Shudo, K. Takeda, Y. Iitaka, K. Yamaguchi, Y. Seino, T. Yahagi, M. Nagao, and T. Sugimura, Isolation and structure determination of mutagenic substances in L-glutamic acid pyrolysate, Proc. Jpn Acad. 54B: 248 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    H. Yamanaka, M. Nagao, T. Sugimura, T. Furuya, A. Shirai, and T. Matsushima, Mutagenicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome test, Mutation Res. 68: 211 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Y. Yamazoe, K. Ishii, T. Kamataki, R. Kato, and T. Sugimura, Isolation and characterization of active metabolites of tryptophan-pyrolysate mutagen, Trp-P-2, formed by rat liver microsomes, Chem.-biol. Interact. 30: 125 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Y. Yamazoe, M. Tada, T. Kamataki, and R. Kato, Enhancement of binding of Nrbydroxy-Trp-P-2 to DNA by seryl-tRNA synthetase, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 102: 432 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    M. Yokota, K. Narita, T. Kosuge, K. Wakabayashi, M. Nagao, T. Sugimura, K. Yamaguchi, K. Shudo, Y. Iitaka, and T. Okamoto, A potent mutagen isolated from a pyrolysate of L-ornithine, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 29: 1473 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    D. Yoehida, T. Matsumoto, R. Yoshimura, and T. Matsuzaki, Mutagenicity of amino-a-carbolines in pyrolysis products of soybean globulin, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 83: 915 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    M. Yoshlda, M. Sasaki, K. Sugimura, and T. Kawachi, Cytogenetic effects of quercetln on cultured mammalian cells, Proc. Jpn Acad. 56: 443 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Sugimura
    • 1
  1. 1.National Cancer Center Research InstituteTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations