Trace Elements and Teratology: An Interactional Perspective

  • Lucille S. Hurley
  • Carl L. Keen
  • Bo Lönnerdal
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (volume 6)


Congenital malformations and developmental defects are at the present time the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States and Europe. Only about 30% of the causes of developmental defects are known, including those of genetic transmission. The biochemical mechanisms responsible for the remaining 65–70% of the developmental defects in humans are unknown (38). Several papers in this volume provide evidence of how congenital malformations may arise as a consequence of mutagenic agents in the environment.


Congenital Malformation Zinc Deficiency Copper Deficiency Maternal Diet Dietary Zinc 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucille S. Hurley
    • 1
  • Carl L. Keen
    • 1
  • Bo Lönnerdal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NutritionUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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