The Dynamics and Structure of Water at Interfaces
Neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering measurements from water in clay minerals, lamellar phases of fatty acid salts, fumed silica suspension and collagen are reviewed. The fluidity of the water as a function of layer thickness from a few angstroms (about one molecular layer) to several hundred angstroms is analysed to show how these systems exhibit a range of behaviour between freely exchanging and bound water on the neutron quasielastic scattering time scale 10−9 to 10−12 seconds.
The materials all swell with increased water content, a swelling which, in some cases, can be reversed by doing mechanical work. It is shown that the energy changes parallel those of a fluid confined in capillaries,calculable by the Kelvin Equation and double layer theory and that this is true to dimensions of a few angstroms) where“microscopic” concepts might have been expected to be inadequate.
KeywordsRotational Diffusion Tetramethyl Ammonium Translational Diffusion High Momentum Transfer Water Vapour Partial Pressure
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