Advertisement

Laser Annealing of Semiconductors

  • Mario Bertolotti
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 84)

Abstract

The study of laser effects on semiconductor surfaces started shortly after the invention of the laser itself. The first measurements can be found in 1964 1,2 when it was observed that a polished semiconductor surface used as a reflector in a ruby laser, can function as a passive Q-switch. The increase in reflectance was attributed to the high density of generated electron-hole pairs 1. Sooy et al. 2 repeated the experiment and tested Si, Ge, InP, InSb, Ga (Asx p1-x) finding in all the materials an increase in reflectivity. Damaging of most materials was also observed. The time development of the reflectivity during illumination with a Q-switched ruby laser, was studied with the disposition shown in Fig. 1, obtaining the results shown in Fig. 2a (Ge) and 2b (InSb). At low power irradiation the reflectivity followed the development of the exciting pulse.

Keywords

Amorphous Layer Semiconductor Surface Crack Line Ruby Laser Laser Annealing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C.H.Carmichael and G.N.Simpson, Nature 202, 787 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W.R.Sooy,M.Geller, D.P.Bortfeld -Appl.Phys.Lett.5 54 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.Birnbaum -J.Appl.Phys.36, 657 (1965)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.Birnbaum -J.Appl.Phys.36, 3688 (1965)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.Birnbaum and T.L.Stocker, J.Appl.Phys.39, 6032 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N.G.Basov, A.Z.Grasyuk, V.F.Efinkov, U.G.Zubarev,V.A.Katalin, Yu.M.Popov -J.Phys.Soc.Japan 21, suppl.277 (1966)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.Bertolotti,F.de Pasquale,P.Marietti,D.Sette and G.Vitali J.Appl.Phys.38_, 4088 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.A.Grinberg, R.F.Mekhtiev, S.M.Ryvkin, V.M.Salmanov, I.A. Yaroshetskii, Sov.Phys.Solid State 9, 1085 (1967)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L.M.Blinov,V.S.Vavilov,G.N.Galkin,Sov.Phys.Semic.1,1124 (1967)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L.M.Blinov,V.S.Vavilov, G.N.Galkin, Sov.Phys.Solid State9, 666 (1967)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L.M.Blinov,E.A.Bobrova, V.S.Vavilov,G.N.Galkin, Sov.Phys.Solid State 9, 2537 (1968)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.M.Bonch -Bruevich, V.P.Kovalev, G.S.Romanov, Ya.A.Imas, M.N.Libenson -Sov.Phys.Tech.Phys.13507 (1968)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.N.Galkin,L.M.Blinov, V.S.Vavilov, A.G.Golovashkin -Sov.Phys. JETP Lett.7 69 (1968)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.Z.Grasyuk, J.G.Zubarev -Sov.Phys.Semic.3, 576 (1969)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.Bertolotti,P.Marietti,D.Sette,L.Stagni,G.Vitali -Rad.Eff.1, 161 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.Bertolotti,D.Sette,L.Stagni, Rad.Eff.16, 197 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.Bertolotti,L.Stagni,.G.Vitali -J.Appl.Phys.42, 5893 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y.Matsuoka -J.Phys. D(Appl .Phys.)9, 215 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18a.
    Y.Matsuoka and A.Usami-Appl.Phys.Lett.25, 574 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    M.Bertolotti,D. Sette,L.Stagni, G.Vitali -J .Appl.Phys.41, 818 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    J.C.Bean,H.J.Leamy,J.M.Poate,G.A.Rozgonyi,J.P.van Ziel; J.S.Williams, G.K.Celler -J.Appl.Phys.50, 881 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    R.A.Mc Forlane and L.D.Hess -Appl.Phys.Lett.36, 137 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    F.Bartoli,L.Esterowitz, M.Kruer and R.Allen, J.Appl.Phys.46, 4519 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    L.Stagni -Appl.Phys.12, 31 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    M.Lax -J.Appl.Phys.48, 3919 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    M.Lax -J.Appl.Phys.Lett.33, 786 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    K.T.Yang, J.Appl.Mech.25,146 (1958)MATHGoogle Scholar
  28. 26.
    K.T.Yang, and A.Szevczky -ASMD Trans. C81, 251 (1959)Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    I.P.Dobrovol’skii, A.A.Vlov -Sov.J.Quant.Electr.4, 788 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    J.R.Meyer, F.J.Bartoli,M.R.Kruer, Phys.Rev.21 B, 1559 (1980)Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    J.R.Meyer,M.R.Kruer, F.Bartoli, J.Appl.Phys.51, 5513 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 30.
    J.R.Meyer, F.J.Bartoli,M.R.Kruer, internal reportGoogle Scholar
  33. 31.
    J.M.Fairfield and G.H. Schwuttke -Solid State Electr.11, 1175 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 32.
    F.E.Harper and M.I.Cohen -Solid State Electr.13, 1103 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    C.L.Marquardt, J.F.Giuliani, F.W.Fraser -Rad.Eff.23, 135 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 34.
    J.F.Giuliani and C.L.Marquardt -J.Appl.Phys.45, 4993 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 35.
    R.A.Laff and G.L.Hutchins -IEEE Trans.Electron Devices ED. 21,743 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 36.
    E.I.Shtyrkov, I.B.Khaibullin, M.M.Zaripov, M.F.Galyatudinov, R.M.Bayazitov -Sov.Phys.Semicond.9, 1309 (1976)Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    O.G.Kutukova,L.N.Strel’tsov -Sov.Phys.Semicond.10, 265 (1976)Google Scholar
  40. 38.
    G.A.Kachurin, E.V.Nidaev, A.V.Khodyachikh, L.A.Kovaleva Sov.Phys.Semicond.10, 1128 (1976)Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    I.B.Khaibullin, E.I.Shtyrkov, M.M.Zaripov, M.F.Galyantdinov, G.G.Zakirov -Sov.Phys.Semicond.10, 81 (1976)Google Scholar
  42. 40.
    G.A.Kachurin, N.B.Pridachin,L.S.Smirnov, Sov.Phys.Semicond.9, 946 (1975)Google Scholar
  43. 41.
    V.V.Bolotov, N.R.Pridachin, L.S.Smirnov -Sov.Phys.Semicond.10, 338 (1976)Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    I.B.Khaibullin, E.I.Shtyrkov,M.M.Zaripov, R.M.Bayzitov, M.F. Galjontdinov -Rad.Eff.36, 225 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 43.
    G.Foti,G.Vitali,M.Bertolotti,E.Rimini -Appl.Phys.14, 189 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 44.
    G.Vitali,M.Bertolotti,G.Foti,E.Rimini -Phys.Lett.63A, 351 (1977)Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    G.Vitali,M.Bertolotti,G.Foti,E.Rimini -Proc. 7th Int.Conf.on Amorphous and Liquid Semicond., Edinburgh June 27-July 1, 1977 ed.W.E.Spear -centre for Industr.Consultancy and Liaison, Univ. Edinburgh 1977 p.24Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    M.Bertolotti,G.Vitali,E.Rimini,G.Foti -J.Appl.Phys.50, 259 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 47.
    J.A.Van Vechten -J.de Phys. C 415 (1980)Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    G.Vitali,M.Bertolotti,G.Foti,E.Rimini -Appl.Phys.l7, 111 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    M.Bertolotti,G.Vitali,W.E.Spear -in Laser Solid Interactions and Laser Processing -1978 edited by S.D.Ferris, H.J.Leamy, J.M.Poate, American Institute of Physics, New York 1979 pag.492 for the transition of amorphous silicon deposited on a single Si crystal see alsoGoogle Scholar
  52. 49a.
    S.S.Lou, W.F.Tseng,M.A.Nicolet, J.W.Mayer, R.C.Eckardt, R.J.Wagner -Appl.Phys.Lett.33, 130 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 49a.
    D.Hoonhout, CB.Kerdijk, F.Sans -Phys.Lett.66A, 145 (1978)Google Scholar
  54. 49a.
    P.Revesz, G.Farkas, G.Mezey, J.Gyulai -Appl.Phys .Lett.33, 431 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 50.
    A.G.Cullis, H.C.Webber, D.C.McCaughan, N.G.Chew, Academic Press, 1980 pag.183Google Scholar
  56. 51.
    G.Foti,E.Rimini,M.Bertolotti,G.Vitali -Phys.Lett.65A430 (1978)Google Scholar
  57. 51a.
    G.Foti,E.Rimini,M.Bertolotti,G.Vitali -Phys.Lett.65A, 430 (1978) G.Vitali,M.Bertolotti,L.Stagni in Laser Interactions and Laser Processing -1978 edited by S.D.Ferris, H.J.Leamy, J.M.Poate -American Inst.Phys.New York 1979 pag.111Google Scholar
  58. 52.
    J.C.Wang, R.F.Wood, P.P.Pronko -Appl .Phys.Lett. 33., 455 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 52a.
    P.Baeri, S.U.Campisano,G.Foti,E.Rimini -Appl.Phys.Lett.33, 137 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 52b.
    R.O.Bell, M.Toulemonde, P.Siffert -Appl.Phys.19, 313 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 52c.
    J.C.Schultz, R.J.Collins -Appl.Phys.Lett.34, 84 (1979) R.O.Bell, M.Toulemonde, P.Siffert -Appl.Phys. 19, 313 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 53.
    C.W.White, W.H.Christie, B.R.Appleton, S.R.Wilson, P.P.Pronko, C.A.Magee -Appl.Phys.Lett.33., 662 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 54.
    See f.e. R.F.Wood in Laser and Electron Beam Processing of Materials -Material Res.Soc.Annual Meeting, Cambridge, Mass. Nov. 26–30, 1979 Academic Press, 1980 pag.37Google Scholar
  64. 55.
    G.Vitali,M.Bertolotti,G.Foti -Appl.Phys.Lett.33, 1018 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 55.
    M.Bertolotti and G.Vitali in Defects and Radiation Effects in Semiconductors, 1978, edited by J.H.Albany, The Institute of Physics, London 1979 pag.454Google Scholar
  66. 56.
    E.J.Yoffa -Appl.Phys.Lett.36, 37 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 57.
    D.H.Auston, C.M.Surko, T.N,C.Venkatesan, R.E.Slusher and Golovchenko -Appl.Phys.Lett.33, 437 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 57.
    D.H.Auston, C.M.Surko, T.N,C.Venkatesan, R.E.Slusher and Golovchenko -Appl.Phys.Lett.33, 437 (1978) D.H.Auston, J.A.Golovchenko, P.R.Smith, C.M.Surko and T.N.C. Venkatesan -Appl .Phys .Lett. 33, 539 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 58.
    D.H.Auston, J.A.Golovchenko, T.N.C.Venkatesan -Appl.Phys. Lett.34, 558 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 59.
    D.H.Auston, J.A.Golovchenko, A.L.Simons, C.M.Surko and T.N.C. Venkatesan -Appl.Phys.Lett.34, 777 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 60.
    E.Yoffa -AIP Conf.Proc.Academic Press (1980) pag.59Google Scholar
  72. 61.
    H.W.Lo and A.Compaan -Phys.Rev.Lett. in pressGoogle Scholar
  73. 62.
    A.G.Klimenko, E.A.Klimenko, V.I.Donin -Sov.J.Quantum Eleetr. .5, 1289 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 62a.
    G.A.Kachurin, E.V.Nidaev, A.V.Khodyachikin, L.A.Kovaleva Sov.Phys.Semicond.10, 1128 (1976)Google Scholar
  75. 62b.
    A.Gat, J.F.Gibbon, T.J.Magee, J.Peng, V.R.Deline, P.Williams, C.A.Evans jr. -Appl.Phys.Lett.32, 276 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 63.
    R.B.Gold and J.F.Gibbons -J.Appl.Phys.51, 1256 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 64.
    S.J.Williams, W.L.Brown, H.J.Leamy, J.M.Poate,J.W.Rodgers, D.Rousseau, G.A.Rozgonyi, J.A.Shelnutt, T.T.Sheng -Appl.Phys. Lett.33, 542 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 65.
    H.E.Cline, and T.R.Anthony, J.Appl.Phys.48, 3985 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 65.
    H.E.Cline, and T.R.Anthony, J.Appl.Phys.48, 3985 (1977)Google Scholar
  80. 66.
    C.W.White, S.R.Wilson, B.R.Appleton, F.W.Young jr. -J.Appl. Phys.5_l, 738 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 67.
    D.H.Auston, J.A.Golovchenko, P.R.Smith, C.M.Surko, T.N.C. Venkatesan -Appl.Phys. Lett.33, 539 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 67a.
    M.Bertolotti,G.Vitali -AIP Conf.Proc.Academic Press (1980) pag.189Google Scholar
  83. 68.
    G.Vitali, Phys.Lett, to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  84. 69.
    J.L.Regolini, T.W.Sigmon, J.F.Gibbons, T.J.Magee and J.Peny in Laser Solid Interactions and Laser Processing 1978 ed.S.D. Ferris, H.J.Leamy, J.M.Poate, AIP, New York 1979 pag.393Google Scholar
  85. 70.
    G.Vitali and M.Bertolotti -J.de Phys.C4–37 (1980)Google Scholar
  86. 71.
    L.D.Laude, M.Lovato, M.C.Martin, M.Wautelet -Phys.Rev.Lett.39, 1565 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 72.
    s. J.C.Bourgoin and J.W.Corbett, Rad.Eff.36, 157 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 73.
    J.Suski and J.Rzewuski -Rad.Eff.40, 81 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 73a.
    A.Kraitchinskii, H.Rzewuski, Z.Werner -Rad.Eff. _29, 137 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 73b.
    J.Suski and J.Rzewuski -Rad.Eff.40, 81 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 73b.
    D.V.Land and L.C .Kimerling -Phys.Rev.Lett.33, 489 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Bertolotti
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Fisica,Fac.IngegneriaUniversità Roma and GREQP of CNRItaly

Personalised recommendations