Single J = 1 Impurities in J = 0 Solids
Macroscopically homogeneous crystals can be grown of the homonuclear molecules H2 or D2 with arbitrary, prescribed concentration ratios of the J = 0 and J = 1 species. At low concentrations of the J = 1 species the J = 1 molecules can be regarded as impurities in a matrix of J = 0 molecules. These impurities are substitutional, each J = 1 molecule taking the place of one J = 0 molecule. The main interaction between the molecules in the solid is the isotropic van der Waals interaction which is essentially independent of the rotational states of the molecules, and the lattice structure and lattice vibrations are therefore not altered appreciably by the presence of the impurities. However, the electric quadrupole field of a J = 1 molecule polarizes the surrounding J = 0 molecules, and this polarization gives rise to an excess binding energy of the impurities in the lattice. This polarization energy and the anisotropic van der Waals interaction also give rise to a coupling between the rotational motion of the molecules and the lattice vibrations.
KeywordsLattice Vibration Polarization Energy Central Molecule Solid Hydrogen Anisotropic Interaction
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