Advertisement

Motivation pp 265-327 | Cite as

The Trigeminal System and Ingestive Behavior

  • H. Philip Zeigler

Abstract

For the past thirty years neurobehavioral research on ingestive behavior has been characterized by a decline in the study of peripheral sensorimotor mechanisms and an increasing concentration upon the role of central neural structures in general and of the hypothalamus in particular. The consequence of this “hypothalamocentric” strategy has been a subtle shift in research goals and tactics. What had begun, at first, as a search for the neural basis of hunger and thirst gradually evolved into a search for the causal basis of the lateral hypothalamic (LH) syndrome (Anand and Brobeck, 1951; Epstein, 1971; Stricker and Zigmond, 1976; Teitelbaum and Epstein, 1962). Although some aspects of this research have paid handsome empirical and conceptual dividends (see, e.g., Teitelbaum, 1977), our continued preoccupation with this one behavioral syndrome and this one brain region may actually have impeded the neurobehavioral analysis of ingestive behavior mechanisms.

Keywords

Consummatory Response Zona Incerta Comparative Neurology Trigeminal System Ingestive Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albert, D. J., Storlien, L. H., Wood, D. J., and Ehman, G. K. Further evidence for a complex system controlling feeding behavior. Physiology and Behavior, 1970, 5, 1075–1082.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarado-Mallart, M. R., Batini, C., Buisseret-Delmas, C., and Corvisier, J. Trigeminal representations of the masticatory and extraocular proprioceptors as revealed by horseradish peroxidase retrograde transport. Experimental Brain Research, 1975, 23, 167–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anand, B. K., and Brobeck, J. R. Hypothalamic control of food intake in rats and cats. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 1951, 24, 123–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, A. E., and Nafstad, P. H.J. An electron microscope investigation of the sensory organs in the hard palate region of the hen (Gallus domesticus). Zeitschrift für Zellforschung, 1968, 91, 391–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, K. V., and Pearl, G. S. Transmedian innervation of canine tooth pulp in cats. Experimental Neurology, 1974, 44, 35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blatt, B., and Lyon, M. The interrelationship of forebrain and midbrain structures involved in feeding behavior. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 1968, 44, 576–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bombardieri, R. A., Jr., Johnson, J. I., Jr., and Campos, G. B. Species differences in mechanosensory projections from the mouth to the ventrobasal thalamus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1975, 163, 41–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Box, B. M., and Mogenson, G. J. Alterations in ingestive behaviors after bilateral lesions of the amygdala in the rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1975, 15, 679–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braun, J. J. The neocortex and feeding behavior in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 89, 506–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, R. G. B. Seed selections by pigeons. Behavior, 1969, 34, 115–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, D., and Karten, H. J. The structural organization of avian brain: An overview. In I. J. Goodman and M. Schein (Eds.), Birds, Brain and Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, D. H. The neural pathways and informational flow mediating a conditioned autonomic response. In I. L. DiCara (Ed.), The Limbic and Autonomic Nervous Systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  13. Darian-Smith, I. The trigeminal system. In A. Iggo (Ed.), Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Somatosensory Systems (Vol. II). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1973.Google Scholar
  14. Daunton, N. G. Differentiation of bite force response in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973, 85, 367–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daunton, N. G. Sensory components of bite-force response in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1977, 91, 203–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dellow, P. G., and Lund, J. P. Evidence for central timing of rhythmical mastication. Journal of Physiology (London), 1971, 215, 1–13.Google Scholar
  17. Dethier, V. G. The Hungry Fly: A Physiological Study of the Behavior Associated with Feeding. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  18. Doty, R. W. Neural organization of deglutition. In C. F. Code and C. L. Prosser (Eds.), Handbook of Physiology (Vol. 4). Washington, D.C.: American Physiological Society, 1968.Google Scholar
  19. Dubbeldam, J. I., and Karten, H. J. The trigeminal system in the pigeon (Columba livia): Projections of the gasserian ganglion. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1978, 180, 661–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dubner, R., Sessle, B. J., and Storer, A. T. The Neural Basis of Oral and Facial Function. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  21. Edinger, L. The relations of comparative anatomy to comparative psychology. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1908, 18, 437–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellison, G. D., Sorenson, C. A., and Jacobs, B. L. Two feeding syndromes following surgical isolation of the hypothalamus in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970, 70, 173–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Emmers, R. Organization of the first and second somesthetic regions (SI and SII) in the rat thalamus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1965, 124, 215–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Epstein, A. N. Oropharyngeal factors in feeding and drinking. In C. E. Code (Ed.), Handbook of Physiology, Section 6: Alimentary Canal, Volume 1: Control of Food and Water Intake. Washington, D.C.: American Physiological Society, 1967.Google Scholar
  25. Epstein, A. N. The lateral hypothalamic syndrome: Its implications for the physiological psychology of hunger and thirst. In E. Stellar and J. M. Sprague (Eds.), Progress in Physiological Psychology (Vol. 4). New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  26. Epstein, A. N., and Teitelbaum, P. Regulation of food intake in the absence of taste, smell, and other oropharyngeal sensations. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962, 55, 753–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evered, M. D., and Mogenson, G. J. Regulatory and secondary water intake in rats with lesions of the zona incerta. American Journal of Physiology, 1976, 230, 1049–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Evered, M. D., and Mogenson, G. J. Impairment in fluid ingestion in rats with lesions of the zona incerta. American Journal of Physiology, 1977, 233, R53-R58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Glickman, S. E., and Schiff, B. B. A biological theory of reinforcement. Psychological Review, 1967, 74, 81–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gobel, S. Some considerations of synaptic organization in the trigeminal sensory nuclei of the adult cat. In B. J. Sessle and A. G. Hannam (Eds.), Mastication and Swallowing: Biological and Clinical Correlates. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  31. Gold, R. M. Aphagia and adispsia following unilateral and bilaterally asymmetrical lesions in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1967, 2, 211–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goodwin, G. M., and Luschei, E. S. Effects of destroying spindle afferents from jaw muscles on mastication in monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1974, 37, 967–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gottlieb, G. Conceptions of prenatal development: Behavioral embryology. Psychological Review, 1976, 83, 215–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gottschaldt, K. M., and Lausmann, S. Mechanoreceptors and their properties in the beak skin of geese (Anser anser). Brain Research, 1974, 65, 510–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Graziadei, P. Personal communication, 1975.Google Scholar
  36. Greene, E. C. Anatomy of the Rat. New York: Hafner, 1968.Google Scholar
  37. Gregg, J. M., and Dixon, A. D. Somatotopic organization of the trigeminal ganglion in the rat. Archives of Oral Biology, 1973, 18, 487–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grossman, S. P., and Grossman, L. Food and water intake in rats with parasaggital knife cuts medial or lateral to the lateral hypothalamus. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971, 74, 148–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hannam, A. G., and Farnsworth, T. J. Information transmission in trigeminal mechanosensitive afferents from teeth in the cat. Archives of Oral Biology, 1977, 22, 181–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harris, R., and Jacquin, M. Trigeminal Deafferentation in the Rat: Dissociation of Stimulus-Bound Feeding and Self-Stimulation. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., April 1978.Google Scholar
  41. Hinde, R. A. Animal Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972.Google Scholar
  42. Hoebel, B. G. Brain reward and aversion systems in the control of feeding and sexual behavior. In J. K. Cole and T. B. Sonderegger (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  43. Holman, G. L. Intragastric reinforcement effect. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 69, 432–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hull, C. L. Principles of Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1943.Google Scholar
  45. Hulse, S. H., and Suter, S. One drop licking in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 66, 536–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hulse, S., and Suter, S. Emitted and elicited behavior: An analysis of some learning mechanisms associated with fluid intake in rats. Learning and Motivation, 1970, 1, 304–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Humphrey, T. The spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve in human embryos between 7–1/2 and 8–1/2. weeks of menstrual age and its relation to early fetal behavior. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1952, 97, 143–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Humphrey, T. The development of mouth opening and related reflexes involving the oral area of human fetuses. The Alabama Journal of Medical Sciences, 1968, 5, 126–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacquin, M. Trigeminal Deafferentation in the Rat: Effects upon a Food-Reinforced Operant Response. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., April 1978.Google Scholar
  50. Jacquin, M. Orosensory Deafferentation and Ingestive Behavior in the Rat. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. City University of New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  51. Jacquin, M. Gustation and ingestive behavior in the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience, 1983, 97, 98–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jacquin M., and Zeigler, H. P. Trigeminal orosensation and ingestive behavior in the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience, 1983, 97, 62–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jacquin, M. F., and Zeigler, H. P. Trigeminal orosensory deafferentation disrupts feeding and drinking mechanisms in the rat. Brain Research, 1982, 238, 198–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jenkins, H. M., and Moore, B. R. The form of the auto-shaped response with food or water rein-forcers. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1973, 20, 163–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kandel, E. An invertebrate system for the cellular analysis of simple behaviors and their modification. In. F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden (Eds.), The Neurosciences: Third Study Program. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  56. Karten, H.J. The organization of the avian telencephalon and some speculations on the phylogeny of the amnote telencephalon. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1969, 167, 164–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kawamura, Y. Recent concepts of the physiology of mastication. Advances in Oral Biology, 1963, 1, 77–109.Google Scholar
  58. Kawamura, Y., and Watanabe, M. Studies on oral sensory thresholds. Medical Journal Osaka University, 1960, 10, 291–301.Google Scholar
  59. Keesey, R. E. Weight regulation and the lateral hypothalamic feeding syndrome. In E. Stellar and J. Corbit (Eds.), Neural Control of Motivated Behavior, Neurosciences Research Program Bulletin, 1973, Vol. II, pp. 342–353.Google Scholar
  60. Kerr, F. W. L. Neuroplasticity of primary afferents in the neonatal cat and some results of early deafferentation of the trigeminal spinal nucleus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1975, 193, 305–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kissileff, H. R. Nonhomeostatic controls of drinking. In A. N. Epstein, H. R. Kissileff, and E. Stellar (Eds.), The Neuropsychology of Thirst: New Findings and Advances in Concepts. Washington, D.G.: Winston, 1973.Google Scholar
  62. Kolb, B., and Nonneman, A. J. Prefrontal cortex and the regulation of food intake in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 88, 806–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kolb, B., Whitshaw, I. O., and Schallert, T. Aphagia, behavior sequencing and body weight set point following orbital frontal lesions in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1977, 19, 93–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kupferman, I. Feeding behavior in Aplysia: A simple system for the study of motivation. Behavioral Biology, 1974, 10, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lashley, K. S. Experimental analysis of instinctive behavior. Psychological Review, 1938, 45, 445–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lettvin, J. Y., Maturana, H. R., McCulloch, W., and Pitts, W. H. What the frog’s eye tells the frog’s brain. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, 1959, 47, 1940–1951.Google Scholar
  67. Levine, M. S., Ferguson, N., Kreinick, C. J., Gustafson, J. W., and Schwartzbaum, J. S. Sensorimotor dysfunctions and aphagia and adipsia following pallidal lesions in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971, 77, 282–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lidsky, T. I., Robinson, J. H., Denaro, F. J., and Weinhold, P. M. Trigeminal influences on entopendular units. Brain Research, 1978, 141, 227–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Luschei, E., and Goodwin, G. M. Role of monkey precentral cortex in the control of voluntary jaw movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1975, 38, 146–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lyon, M., Halpern, M., and Mintz, E. The significance of the mesencephalon for coordinated feeding behavior. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 1968, 44, 323–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Macintosh, S. R. Observations on the structure and innervation of the rat snout. Journal of Anatomy, 1975, 119, 537–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McIntyre, A. K. Afferent limb of the myotactic reflex arc. Nature, 1951, 168, 168–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marshall, J. F., and Teitelbaum, P. Further analysis of sensory inattention following hypothalamic damage in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974, 86, 375–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Marshall, J. F., Turner, B. H., and Teitelbaum, P. Sensory neglect produced by lateral hypothalamic damage. Science, 1971, 174, 523–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marshall, J. F., Richardson, J. S., and Teitelbaum, P. Nigrostriatal bundle damage and the Lateral Hypothalamic Syndrome. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974, 87, 808–830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Marwine, A., and Zeigler, H. P. Trigeminal deafferentation and ingestive behavior in rat. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  77. Mazza, J. P., and Dixon, A. D. A histological study of chromatolytic cell groups in the trigeminal ganglion of the rat. Archives of Oral Biology, 1972, 17, 377–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Megibow, M., and Zeigler, H. P. Readiness to eat in the pigeon. Psychonomic Science, 1968, 12, 17–18.Google Scholar
  79. Mendelson, J., and Chillag, D. Tongue cooling: A new reward for thirsty rodents. Science, 1970, 170, 1418–1421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mendelson, J., and Zec, R. Effects of lingual denervation and desalivation on airlicking in the rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1972, 8, 711–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Miller, M. G. The effects of trigeminal deafferentation on food and water intake in the rat. Neuroscience Abstracts, 1977, 3, 506.Google Scholar
  82. Miller, M. G. Trigeminal Orosensory Control of Feeding Behavior. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. April 1978.Google Scholar
  83. Miller, M. G. Behavioral parameters of body weight regulation in the pigeon (Columba livia). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1978b, 92, 1014–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Miller, M. G. The Effects of Trigeminal Deafferentation on Caloric Regulation of Intake in Response to Dilution. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Philadelphia, April 1979a.Google Scholar
  85. Miller, M. G. Personal communication, 1979b.Google Scholar
  86. Miller, M. G. Trigeminal deafferentation and ingestive behavior in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1981, 95, 252–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Miller, M. G., Zeigler, H. P., and Miller, A. Trigeminal deafferentation and feeding behavior patterns in the pigeon (Columba livia). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1978, 92, 1025–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mogenson, G. J., Brimley, C., Box, B. and Evered, M. Deficits in food and water intake and consummatory behavior associated with damage to central dopominergic pathways. Proceedings XXVII International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Paris, XIII, 1977, 520, 1541.Google Scholar
  89. Moon, R., and Zeigler, H. P. Food preferences in the pigeon. Physiology and Behavior, 1979, 22, 1171–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Morgane, P. J. The function of the limbic and rhinic forebrain-limbic midbrain systems and reticular formation in the regulation of food and water intake. In P. J. Morgane (Ed.), Neural Regulation of Food and Water Intake. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1969.Google Scholar
  91. Morita, N., Tamai, Y., and Tsujimoto, T. Unit responses activated by tooth pulp stimulation in lateral hypothalamic area of the rat. Brain Research, 1977, 134, 158–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mott, F. W., and Sherrington, C. S. Experiments upon the influence of sensory nerves upon movement and nutrition of the limbs. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), 1895, 57, 481–488.Google Scholar
  93. Mufson, E., and Riss, W. Degenerated neuroanatomical pathways associated with aphagia and adipsia following lateral hypothalamic lesions. Neuroscience Abstracts, 1977, III, 508.Google Scholar
  94. Mufson, E., Balagura, S., and Riss, W. Degeneration in pathways to the pontine taste area in relation to aphagia and adipsia. Neuroscience Abstracts, 1976, II, 436.Google Scholar
  95. Nord, S. G. Somatotopic organization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the dorsal column nuclei and related structures in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1967, 130, 343–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nord, S. G. Receptor field characteristics of single cells in the rat spinal trigeminal complex. Experimental Neurology, 1968, 21, 236–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nowlis, G. H. From reflex to representation: Taste-elicited tongue movements in the human newborn. In J. M. Weiffenbach (Ed.), Taste and Development: The Genesis of Sweet Preference. Bethesda, Md.: DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 77–1068, 1977.Google Scholar
  98. O’Laughlin, E., and Feldman, S. Recovery from hypothalamic aphagia after a single intrahypothalamic injection of apomorphine. Neuroscience Abstracts, 1976, II, 437.Google Scholar
  99. Oakley, B. Impaired operant behavior following lesions of the thalamic taste nucleus. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1965, 59, 202–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Oatley, K., and Dickinson, A. Air drinking and the measurement of thirst. Animal Behavior, 1970, 18, 259–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Parker, S. W., and Feldman, S. M. Effect of mesencephalic lesions on feeding behavior in rats. Experimental Neurology, 1967, 17, 313–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Patrizzi, A., and Munger, B. The ultrastructure and innervation of rat vibrissae. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1966, 126, 423–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pfaffman, C., Frank, M., and Norgren, R. Neural mechanisms and behavioral aspects of taste. Annals of the Review of Psychology, 1979, 30, 283–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Richter, C. P. Salt appetite of mammals: Its dependence on instinct and metabolism. In M. Autuori (Ed.), L’Instinct dans le Comportement des Animaux et de L’Homme. Paris: Masson, 1956.Google Scholar
  105. Rodgers, W. L., Epstein, A. N., and Teitelbaum, P. Lateral hypothalamic aphagia: Motor failure of motivational deficit? American Journal of Physiology, 1965, 208, 334–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Roeder, K., A physiological approach to the relation between prey and predator. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 1959, 137, 287–306.Google Scholar
  107. Schleidt, W. M. The comparative study of behavior. In I. J. Goodman and M. Schein (Eds.), Birds: Brain and Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  108. Sessle, B. J., and Hannam, A. G. Mastication and swallowing: Biological and clinical correlates. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  109. Silver, R., and Witkovsky, P. Functional characteristics of single units in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the pigeon. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 1973, 8, 287–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith, R. J. Behavioral Responses Other Than Key Striking Which Are Counted as Responses during Pigeon pecking. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1967.Google Scholar
  111. Smith, R. L. The ascending fiber projections from the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1973, 148, 423–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Snowdon, C. T. Motivation, regulation, and the control of meal parameters with oral and intragastric feeding. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 69, 91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Starkie, C., and Stewart, D. The intra-mandibular course of the inferior dental nerve. Journal of Anatomy, 1931, 65, 319–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Stingelin, W. Grössenunterschiede des sensiblen Trigeminuskern bei verschiedenen Vögeln. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 1961, 68 247–251.Google Scholar
  115. Stricker, E. M., and Zigmond, M. J. Recovery of function after damage to central catecholaminecontaining neurons: A neuronal model for the lateral hypothalamic syndrome. In E. Stellar and J. M. Sprague (Eds.), Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology (Vol. 6). New York: Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  116. Stricker, E. M., N. Rowland, and M. J. Zigmond. Trigeminal lemniscal lesions and the lateral hypothalamic syndrome. Science, 1975, 190, 694–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Szentagothai, J. Anatomical considerations of monsynaptic reflex arcs. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1948, 11, 445–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Taub, E., and A. J. Berman. Movement and learning in the absence of sensory feedback. In S. J. Freedman (Ed.), The Neuropsychology of Spatially Oriented Behavior. Homewood, Ill. Dorsey Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  119. Teitelbaum, P. The use of operant methods in the assessment and control of motivational states. In W. K. Honig (Ed.), Operant Behavior: Areas of Research and Application. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966.Google Scholar
  120. Teitelbaum, P. Levels of integration of the operant. In W. K. Honig and J. E. R. Staddon (Eds.), Handbook of Operant Behavior. Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977.Google Scholar
  121. Teitelbaum, P., and Epstein, A. N. The lateral hypothalamic syndrome: Recovery of feeding and drinking after lateral hypothalamic lesions. Psychological Review, 1962, 69, 90–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Teitelbaum, P., and Epstein, A. N. The role of taste and smell in the regulation of food and water intake. In Y. Zotterman (Ed.), Olfaction and Taste. London: Pergamon, 1963.Google Scholar
  123. Teuber, H. L. Some alterations in behavior after cerebral lesions in man. In. A. Bass (Ed.), Evolution of Nervous Control. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1959.Google Scholar
  124. Thor, D. H., and Ghiselli, W. B. Suppression of mouse killing and apomorphine-induced social aggression in rats by local anesthesia of the mystacial vibrissae. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 88, 40–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Towe, A. L. Motor cortex and the pyramidal system. In J. D. Maser (Ed.), Efferent Organization and the Integration of Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  126. Turner, B. H. Sensorimotor syndrome produced by lesions of the amygdala and lateral hypothalamus. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973, 82, 37–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ungerstedt, U. Is interruption of the nigrostriatal dopamine system producing the “lateral hypothalamic syndrome?” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 1970, 80, 354–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Van der Kooy, D., and Phillips, A. G. Trigeminal substrates of intracranial self-stimulation in the brainstem. Science, 1977, 196, 447–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Vincent, S. B. The function of the vibrissae in the behavior of the white rat. Behavior Monographs, 1912.Google Scholar
  130. Weijs, W. A., and Dantuma, R. Electromyography and mechanics of mastication in the albino rat. Journal of Morphology, 1975, 146, 1–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Weinstein, S. Intensive and extensive aspects of tactile sensitivity as a function of body part, sex and laterality. In D. R. Kanshalo (Eds.), The Skin Senses. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, 1968.Google Scholar
  132. Welker, C., Microelectrode delineation of fine grain somatotoptic organization of SmI cerebral neocortex in albino rat. Brain Research, 1971, 26, 259–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Welker, W. I. Principles of organization of the ventrobasal complex in mammals. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 1973, 7, 253–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Welker, W. I. Brain evolution in mammals. A review of concepts, problems and methods. In R. B. Masterson, M. E. Bitterman, B. Campbell, and N. Hotton (Eds.), Evolution of Brain and Behavior in Vertebrates. Potomac, Md.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1976.Google Scholar
  135. Westrum, L. E., Canfield, R. C., and Black, R. G. Transganglionic degeneration in the spinal trigeminal nucleus following removal of tooth pulp in adult cats. Brain Research, 1976, 101, 137–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Witkovsky, P., Zeigler, H. P. and Silver, R. The nucleus basalis of the pigeon: A single-unit analysis. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1973, 147, 119–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wolf, G., and DiCara, L. Impairments in sodium appetite after lesions of gustatory thalamus: Replication and extension. Behavioral Biology, 1974, 10, 105–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wolgin, D. L., Cytawa, J., and Teitelbaum, P. The role of activation in the regulation of food intake. In D. Novin, W. Wyrwicka, and G. Bray (Eds.), Hunger: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  139. Wolin, B. R. Difference in manner of pecking a key between pigeons reinforced with food and with water. In A. Catania (Ed.), Contemporary Research in Operant Behavior. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman, 1968.Google Scholar
  140. Woolsey, T. A., and Van der Loos, H. The structural organization of layer IV in the somatosensory region (SI) of mouse cerebral cortex: The description of a cortical field composed of discrete cytoarchitectonic units. Brain Research, 1970, 17, 205–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Woolsey, T. A., Welker, C., and Schwartz, R. Comparative anatomical studies of the SmI face cortex with special reference to the occurrence of “barrels” in layer IV. Brain Research, 1975, 164, 79–94.Google Scholar
  142. Wyrwicka, W. Sensory regulation of food intake. Physiology and Behavior, 1969, 4, 853–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wyrwicka, W., and Chase, M. H. Projections from the buccal cavity to brainstem sites involved in feeding behavior. Experimental Neurology, 1970, 27, 512–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wyrwicka, W., Chase, M. H., and Clemente, C. D. The effects of lateral hypothalamic lesions on the masseteric reflex. Anatomical Record, 1975, 181, 514.Google Scholar
  145. Zeier, J., and Karten, H. J. The archistriatum of the pigeon. Organization of afferent and efferent connections. Brain Research, 1971, 31, 313–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zeigler, H. P. The problem of comparison in comparative psychology. In H. Adler, L. Adler, and E. Tobach (Eds.), Current Issues in Comparative Psychology (Vol. 223). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1973a.Google Scholar
  147. Zeigler, H. P. Trigeminal deafferentation and feeding behavior in the pigeon: Sensorimotor and motivational effects. Science, 1973b, 182, 1155–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zeigler, H. P. Feeding behavior in the pigeon: A neurobehavioral analysis. In I. Goodman and M. Schein (Eds.), Brids: Brain and Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  149. Zeigler, H. P. Trigeminal deafferentation and hunger in the pigeon (Columba livia). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975a, 89, 827–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zeigler, H. P. Dissociation of operant and consummatory responses by trigeminal deafferentation in the pigeon. Physiology and Behavior, 1975b, 14, 871–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Zeigler, H. P. Feeding behavior in the pigeon. In J. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, C. Beer, and E. Shaw (Eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior (Vol. 7). New York: Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  152. Zeigler, H. P. Trigeminal deafferentation and feeding behavior in the pigeon: Dissociation of tonic and phasic effects. In B. M. Wenzel and H. P. Zeigler (Eds.), Tonic Functions of Sensory Systems (Vol. 290) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1977.Google Scholar
  153. Zeigler, H. P., and Karten, H. J. Brain mechanisms and feeding behavior in the pigeon (Columba livia): I. Quintofrontal structures. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1973a, 152, 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zeigler, H. P., and Karten, H. J. Brain mechanisms and feeding behavior in the pigeon (Columba livia): II. Analysis of feeding behavior deficits following lesions of quintofrontal structures. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1973b, 152, 83–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Zeigler, H. P., and Karten, H. J. Central trigeminal structures and the lateral hypothalamic syndrome in the rat. Science, 1974, 186, 636–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zeigler, H. P., and Witkovsky, P. The main sensory trigeminal nucleus in the pigeon: A single unit analysis. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1968, 134, 255–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Zeigler, H. P., Karten, H. J., and Green, H. L. Neural control of feeding in the pigeon. Pscyhonomic Science, 1969, 15, 156–157.Google Scholar
  158. Zeigler, H. P., Green, H. L. and Lehrer, R. Patterns of feeding behavior in the pigeon. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971, 76, 468–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Zeigler, H. P., Green, H. L., and Siegel, J. Food and water intake and weight regulation in the pigeon. Physiology and Behavior, 1972, 8, 127–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zeigler, H. P., Miller, M. G., and Levine, R. R. Trigeminal nerve and eating in the pigeon (Columba livia): Neurosensory control of the consummatory response. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology. 1975, 89, 845–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Zisweiler, V., and Farner, D. S. Digestion and the digestive system. In D. S. Farner, and J. King (Eds.), Avian Biology (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  162. Zucker, E., and Welker, W. I. Coding of somatic sensory input by vibrissae neurons in the rat’s trigeminal ganglion. Brain Research, 1969, 12, 138–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zweers, G. A. Structure, movement, and myography of the feeding apparatus of Mallard (Anas playrhynchos L.). A study in functional anatomy. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 1974, 24, 323–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Philip Zeigler
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Hunter CollegeCUNYUSA
  2. 2.Department of Animal BehaviorAmerican Museum of Natural HistoryNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations