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Genomic DNA: New Approaches to Evolutionary Problems

  • Alan F. Scott
  • Kirby D. Smith
Part of the Monographs in Evolutionary Biology book series (MEBI)

Abstract

The genome of a haploid cell from most eukaryotes contains over three billion base pairs of DNA. The organization of this DNA is complex. Much of it consists of various families of repeated sequences, some of which have changed rapidly in time, while others have been conserved evolutionarily. A relatively small portion of the genome contains the few thousand expressed genes that code for proteins. Regulatory sequences, important in differentiation and adaptation, are also present. Further, there may be sequences that migrate within and between chromosomes, perhaps altering the phenotype, and sequences that might direct the rearrangement of chromosomes, which also could profoundly affect the development of organisms and their morphology. In short, all of the information that constitutes an individual as a member of a species, genus, or higher taxonomic group is encoded in the genome, and it is here that evolutionary change is recorded. In the past, in order to investigate the interrelatedness of species and the genetic processes by which they evolve, systematists and evolutionary biologists have, by necessity, been forced to study the consequences of gene expression. But the revolution in DNA techniques that has emerged from molecular biology now makes it possible to study and compare gene structure and organization directly. The insights that are emerging from these new approaches for studying the genome have already drastically altered our concept of the gene. In the future they may also alter our view of evolution. In this chapter we hope to survey some of the principal methods that are being used in evolutionary studies of genomic DNA, to describe a few results of their application, and to discuss their prospects for the future. Much of what we present will be speculative or preliminary, but it may indicate some of the directions of evolutionary biology in the years ahead.

Keywords

Satellite DNAs Ribosomal Gene Globin Gene Recombinant Phage Globin Gene Cluster 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan F. Scott
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kirby D. Smith
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.The Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Laboratory for Human Biochemical GeneticsHoward Hughes Medical InstituteBaltimoreUSA

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