Transfer of Macromolecules Using Erythrocyte Ghosts
Microinjection using RBC ghosts is accomplished by first introducing molecules into RBCs during hypotonie hemolysis and then fusing the RBCs to cultured cells with Sendai virus or polyethylene glycol. In this manner molecules can be injected into large numbers of cultured cells within a short time. The method was developed several years ago in three laboratories (Furusawa et al., 1974; Schlegel and Rechsteiner, 1975; Loyter et al., 1975), and it has been used to study a variety of cellular, genetic, and biochemical problems. Since anyone reading this chapter probably has an application in mind, the text emphasizes methodology. Several articles are available which review previous applications and present a broader discussion of the technique (Kulka and Loyter, 1979; Furusawa, 1980). Those who wish to use RBC-mediated injection should consider microneedles or liposomes as alternate injection procedures. Each technique offers certain advantages and disadvantages, and these are briefly reviewed.
KeywordsHank Balance Salt Solution Sendai Virus Erythrocyte Ghost Cell BioI Hypotonic Saline
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- Kulka, R. G., and Loyter, A., 1979, The use of fusion methods for the microinjection of animal cells, in: Current Topics in Membranes and Transport, Volume 12 (F. Bronner and A. Kleinzeller, eds.), Academic Press, New York, p. 365.Google Scholar
- Watkins, J. F., 1971, Fusion of cells for virus studies and production of cell hybrids, in: Methods in Virology, Volume V (K. Maramorosch and H. Koprowski, eds.), Academic Press, New York, p. 1.Google Scholar