Nuclear Transplantation with Mammalian Cells
Early microsurgical nuclear transplantation experiments with nonmammalian systems suggested that cytoplasmic elements participate in the regulation of nuclear gene expression and replication. With cells from Rana pipiens (Briggs and King, 1960), Xenopus leavis (Gurdon, 1962), and Drosophila melanogaster (Okada et al., 1974), it was shown that egg cell cytoplasm could redirect the differentiative pathway of nuclei from cells at much later stages of development. Moreover, in Stentor coeruleus, for example, nuclear DNA synthesis likewise appeared to be regulated, at least in part, by cytoplasmic factors (deTerra, 1967). With mammalian cells, numerous somatic cell hybridization experiments demonstrated that the patterns of gene expression of two parental cell types could be stably altered when a hybrid cell containing a mixed genome was constructed [reviewed by Ringertz and Savage (1976); Lucas (1982)]. For example, rat hepatoma cells that secreted albumin were fused to mouse fibroblasts that did not. Some hybrid clones secreted only mouse or rat albumin, while others secreted both rat and mouse albumin (Peterson and Weiss, 1972). Results of this and other similar experiments showed that a complex array of interactions is possible when two very different cell types are fused. They also suggested the existence, in animal cells, of elements which can interact functionally with a foreign nucleus and either positively or negatively regulate the expression of certain genes.
KeywordsNuclear Transplantation Sendai Virus Normal Growth Medium Cytoplasmic Fragment Cell BioI
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