Tobacco Smoking and Atherosclerosis

  • Constantin J. Miras
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 51)


Extensive epidemiological data associate tobacco smoking with an increased risk for atherosclerosis (1–5). Beyond any doubt morbidity and mortality, especially from coronary heart disease, are increased in smokers (6–7), more often as precipitating factor of the terminal occlusive or thrombotic episode on a preexisting atherosclerotic growth. Although this contribution is defined (8–9)9 a full explanation is lacking.


Cigarette Smoking Tobacco Smoke Cigarette Smoke Condensate Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase Thrombotic Episode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    W.B. Kannel, P. Sorlie, F. Bran, W.P. Castelli, P.M. McNamara, and G.J. Gherardi, Epidemiology of Coronary Atherosclerosis: Postmortem VS Clinical Risk Factor Correlations,The Framingham Study, in “Atherosclerosis V. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium”, A.M. Gotto,Jr., L.C. Smith and B. Allen, Springer-Verlag, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.N. Stemmermann, G.G. Rhoads, and T. Hayashi, Atherosclerosis and Its Risk Factors Among Hawaii Japanese, in “Atherosclerosis V. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium”,A.M. Got- to,Jr.,L.C. Smith and B. Allen,eds.,Springer-Verlag, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N.H. Sternby, Atherosclerosis, Smoking and Other Risk Factors, in “Atherosclerosis V. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium”, A.M. Gotto,Jr.,L.C. Smith and B. Allen,eds., Springer-Verlag, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.P. Strong and P. Omae, Epidemiology of Atherosclerosis and Geographic Differences in Risk Factors”, in “Atherosclerosis IV. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, G. Schettler, Y. Goto, Y. Hata, G. Klose,eds.,Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1977)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.P. Strong and M.L. Richards, Cigarette smoking and atherosclerosis in autopsied men, Atherosclerosis 23 (3): 451 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.L. Naeye and L.D. Truong, Effects of cigarette smoking on intra-myocardial arteries and arterioles in man, Am.J. CIin.Path. 68(4):493 (1977)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O. Auerbach, H.W. Carter, L. Garfinkel and E.C. Hammond, Cigarette smoking and coronary artery disease: A macroscopic and microscopic study, Chest 70 (6): 697 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 10.
    W.B. Kannel, Epidemiological studies on smoking in cerebral and peripheral vascular disease, in “Smoking and Health.I. Modifying the Risk for the Smoker”, E. Wynder, D. Hoffmann and G.B. Gori,eds., DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 76–1221, (1975)Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    E. Rogot, Smoking and General Mortality Among U.S. Veterans, 1954–1969, U.S.A. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Epidemiology Branch, DHWE Publication No. (NIH) 74–544 (1974)Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    R. Doll, R. Gray, B. Hafner and R. Peto, Mortality in relation to smoking:22 years observations on female British doctors, Brit.Med.J. 281: 967 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 13.
    C.J. Miras, J. Lekakis, A. Bouloukos and A. Kalofoutis, Surface cellular fibronectin, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in umbilical cord of heavy smokers at delivery, Preliminary report submitted for publicationGoogle Scholar
  12. 14.
    R.L. Naeye, Effects of maternal cigarette smoking on foetus and placenta, Brit.J.Obstetr.Gynaecol. 85(10): 732 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 15.
    O. Pelkonen, N.T. Karki, M. Koivisto, R. Tuimala and A. Kauppila, Maternal cigarette smoking, placental aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and neonatal size, Toxicol.Letters, NLD, 3,No. 6, 331 (1979)Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    C.J. Miras and A. Kalofoutis, Tobacco smoking as a risk factor in olive oil consume areas (Lesvos,Laconia), Proceedings of the Pankretion Medical Congress, Rethymnon-Kreta (1980)Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    A report of Surgeon General. Reprint. Constituenst of Tobacco Smoke, smoking and health, D.C. Governement Printing Office, pp. 33–70, Washington (1979)Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    R.E. Albert, M. Vanderlaan, F.J. Burns and M. Nishizumi, Effect of carcinogens on chicken atherosclerosis, Cancer Res. 37 (7): 2232 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 19.
    L.C. Miller, A.F. Schilling, D.L. Logan, et al., Potential hazards of rapid smoking as a technic for the modification of smoking behaviour, New Eng.J.Med. 297:590 (1977)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 20.
    A. Bylock, G. Bondjiers, I. Jansson and H.A. Hansson, Surface ultrastructure of human arteries with special reference to the effects of smoking, Acta Path.Microbiol.Scand., Section A., 87: 201 (1979)Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    P. Astrup, Some physiological and pathological effects of moderate carbon monoxide exposure, Brit.Med.J. 2: 447 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 22.
    N. Wald, S. Howard, P.G. Smith and K. Kjelsen, Association between atherosclerotic diseases and carboxyhemoglobin levels in tobacco smokers, Brit.Med.J. 31p: 761 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 23.
    M. Helitivaara, M.J. Karvonen, R. Vilhurien and S. Punsar, Smoking, carbon monoxide, and atherosclerotic diseases, Brit.Med.J. 1: 268 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 24.
    D.M. Turner, Carbon monoxide tobacco smoking and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, Preventive Medicine 8: 303 (1979)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 25.
    L.L. Hawkins, Blood carbon monoxide levels as a function of daily cigarette consumption and physical activity, Brit.J.Ind.Med. 33: 123 (1976)Google Scholar
  24. 26.
    P.V. Cole, Comparative effects of atmospheric pollution and cigarette smoking on carboxyhaemoglobin levels in man, Nature (London) 255: 699 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 29.
    H. Schievelbein,G. Heinemann, K. Loeschenkohl, C. Troll and J. Schlegel, Metabolic aspects of smoking behaviour, in “Smoking Behaviour”, R.E. Thornton,ed., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh- London-New York (1978)Google Scholar
  26. 30.
    R.J.B. Garrett and M.A. Jackson, Effect of acute smoke exposure on hepatic protein synthesis, J.Pharm.Exp.Ther. 209: 215 (1979)Google Scholar
  27. 31.
    R.S. Gardner, D.L. Topping and P.A. Mayes, Immediate effects of carbon monoxide on the metabolism of chylomicron remnants by perfused liver, Biochim.Biophys.Res.Comm. 82: 526 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 32.
    R.E. Vestal, A.H. Norris, J.D. Tobin, H.B. Cohen, W.N. Shock and R. Andress, Antipyrine metabolism in man. Influence of age, alcohol, caffeine and smoking, Clin.Pharm.Ther. 18: 425 (1975)Google Scholar
  29. 33.
    W.S. Aronow, Effect of non-nicotine cigarettes and CO on angina, Circulation 61: 262 (1980)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 35.
    U. Spohr, K. Hoffmann, W. Steck, J. Harenberg, E. Walter, N. Hengen, J. Augustin; H. Mtirl, A. Koch, A. Horsch and E. Weber, Evaluation of smoking induced effects on sympatic,hemodynamic and metabolic variables with respect to plasma nicotine and Hb-CO levels, Atherosclerosis 33: 271 (1979)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 36.
    B.D. Rabinowitz, K. Thop, G.L. Huber and W.H. Abelmann, Acute hemodynamic effects of cigarette smoking in man assessed by systolic time intervals and echocardiography, Circulation 60: 752 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 37.
    R.F. Isaac and M.J. Rand., Cigarette smoking and plasma levels of nicotine, Nature (London) 236: 308 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 38.
    A.K. Armitage, C.T. Dollery, C.F. George, T.H. Houseman, P.J. Lewis and D.M. Turner, Absorption and metabolism of nicotine by man during cigarette smoking, Brit.J.Clin.Pharm. 1: 180 (1974)Google Scholar
  34. 39.
    P. Hill, Nicotine:An etiological factor for coronary heart disease, in “Smoking and Health.I.Modifying the Risk for the Smoker”, E.L. Wynder, D. Hoffmann and G.B. Gori,eds., U.S.A.,DHEW (1976)Google Scholar
  35. 42.
    P. Hill and E. Wynder, Smoking and cardiovascular disease. Effect of nicotine on the serum epinephrine and corticoids, Am.Heart J. 87: 491 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 43.
    A. Kershbaum, D.J. Pappajohn, S. Bellet, M. Hirabayashi and H. Shafiita, Effect of smoking and nicotine on adrenocortical secretion, J.Am.Med.Assn. 203: 275 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 44.
    O.D. Mjos and A. Ilebekk, Effects of nicotine on myocardial metabolism and performance in dogs, Scand.J.Clin.Lab.Invest. 32: 75 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 45.
    L. Tachmes, R.I. Fernandez and M.A. Sackner, Hemodynamic effectsof smoking cigarettes of high and low nicotine content, Chest 74: 243 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 46.
    J.W. Davis and R.F. Davis, Acute effect of tobacco cigarette smoking on the platelet aggregate ratio, Am.J.Med.Sci. 278: 139 (1979)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 47.
    R.H. Levine, An acute effect of cigarette smoking on platelet function: A possible link between smoking and arterial thrombosis, Circulation 48: 619 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 48.
    R.I. Hawkins, Smoking, platelets and thrombosis, Nature(London) 236: 450 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 49.
    M.L. Bierenbaum, A.I. Fleischman, A. Stier, H. Somol and P.B. Watson, Effect of cigarette smoking upon in vivo platelet function, Thrombosis Res. 12: 1051 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 50.
    G. Grignani, G. Gamba and E. Ascari, Cigarette smoking effect on platelet function, Thrombosis and Haemostasis 37: 423 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 51.
    D.H. Lawson, J.F. Davidson and H. Jick, Oral contraceptive use and venous thromboembolism:absence of an effect of smoking, Br.Med.J. ii: 729 (1977)Google Scholar
  45. 52.
    C.G. Becker and T. Dubin, Activation of factor XII by tobacco glycoprotein, J.Exp.Med. 146: 457 (1977)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 54.
    C.R. Minick, Immunological arterial injury in atherogenesis, Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 275: 210 (1976)Google Scholar
  47. 55.
    G. Fust, E. Szondy, J. Szekely, I. Nanai and S. Geno, Circulating immune complexes in vascular diseases, Atherosclerosis 29: 181 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 56.
    C.G. Becker, T. Dubin and H.P. Wiedeman, Hypersensitivity to tobacco antigen, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.(USA) 73: 1712 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 57.
    C.G. Becker, R. Levi and J. Zavecz, Induction of IgE antibodies to antigen isolated from tobacco leaves and from cigarette smoke condensate, Am.J.Path. 96: 249 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 58.
    P. Clopath, Immunological arterial injury in swine, in “Peptides of the Biological Fluids”, H. Peters,ed.,Pergamon Press, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  51. 60.
    I. Hjermann, A. Helgeland, I. Holme, P.G. Lund-Larsen and P. Leren, The intercorrelation of serum cholesterol, cigarette smoking and body weight, The Oslo study, Acta Med.Scand. 200: 479 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 61.
    R.J. Garrison, W.B. Kannel, M. Feinleib, W.P. Castelli, P.M. McNamara and S.J. Padgett, Cigarette smoking and HDL cholesterol, Framingham offspring study, Atherosclerosis 30: 17 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 62.
    S. Heyden, G. Heiss, C. Manegold, H. Tyroler, C.G. Harnes, A.G. Bartel and G. Cooper, Combined effect of smoking and coffee drinking on LDL, HDL cholesterol, Circulation 60: 22 (1979)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 63.
    K. Berg, A.-L. Börresen and G. Dahlen, Effect of smoking on serum levels of HDL Apoproteins, Atherosclerosis 34: 339 (1979)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Constantin J. Miras
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of AthensGoudi-AthensGreece

Personalised recommendations