Advertisement

Instrumentation for Measurement of Electromagnetic Fields: Equipment, Calibrations and Selected Applications Part I — Radiofrequency Fields

  • Richard A. Tell
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 49)

Abstract

Determination of radiofrequency electromagnetic field expo-, sure is necessary in both biological effects research work concerned with electromagnetic field effects and the assessment of possible hazards to exposed individuals. The situations include laboratory exposure of animals and human exposures in both the work place and non-occupational settings for determining compliance with applicable safety standards. Because of the common complications introduced by the environment such as multipath reflections and absorption caused by intervening attenuative media, resort is often made to a direct measurement of the ambient fields in lieu of the often impossible task of accurate mathematical computation.

Keywords

Field Strength Power Density Electromagnetic Field Field Intensity Electric Field Strength 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asian, E. (1972), Broadband isotropic electromagnetic radiation monitor. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. IM-21, No. 4, November, pp. 411–424.Google Scholar
  2. Asian, E. (1975), Simplify leakage probe calibration. Microwaves, December, pp. 52–54, 57.Google Scholar
  3. Asian, E. (1976), A low-frequency H-field radiation monitor. In Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, Vol. II, selected papers of the USNC/URSI annual meeting, Boulder, Colorado, October 20–23, 1975, ed. C. C. Johnson and M. L. Shore. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report (FDA) 77–8011, December, pp. 229–238, NTIS accession number PB 268 095.Google Scholar
  4. Asian, E. (1979), The maturing of electromagnetic radiation hazard instruments. Microwave Journal, May, pp. 83Google Scholar
  5. Bassen, H. (1977), Internal dosimetry and external microwave field measurements using miniature electric field probes. In Symposium on Biological Effects and Measurement of Radio Frequency/Microwaves, proceedings of a conference held in Rockville, Maryland, February 16–18, 1977, USDHEW publication (FDA) 77–8026, pp. 136–151.Google Scholar
  6. Bassen, H. and R. Peterson (1976), Complete measurement of electromagnetic fields with electro-optical crystals. In Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, Vol. II, selected papers of the USNC/URSI annual meeting, Boulder, Colorado, October 20–23, 1975, ed. C.C. Johnson and M. L. Shore. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report (FDA) 77–8011, December, pp. 310–323, NTIS accession number PB 268 095.Google Scholar
  7. Belsher, D. (1975), Development of near field electric energy density meter model EDM-2. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare report NIOSH 75–140, March.Google Scholar
  8. Bendix Corporation Research Laboratories (1970), Development of liquid crystal microwave power density meter. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report BRH/DEP 70–8, May, 14 p., NTIS accession number PB 191 396.Google Scholar
  9. Bernstein, S. L., M. L. Burrows, J. E. Evans, A. S. Griffiths, D. A. McNeill, C. W. Niessen, I. Richer, D. P. White, and D. K. Willim (1974), Long range communication at extremely low frequencies. Proceedings IEEE, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 292–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowman, R. R. (1970), Quantifying hazardous electromagnetic fields: practical considerations. National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 389, April, 15 p.Google Scholar
  11. Bowman, R. R. (1974), Some recent developments in the characterization and measurement of hazardous electromagnetic fields. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Polish Medical Publishers, Warsaw, pp. 217–227.Google Scholar
  12. Bowman, R. R., E. B. Larsen, D. R. Belsher, and P. F. Wacker (1970), Second progress report, Electromagnetic hazards project, unpublished NBS report, September.Google Scholar
  13. Bracken, T. D. (1976), Field measurements and calculations of electrostatic effects of overhead transmission lines. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-95, March/April, pp. 494–504.Google Scholar
  14. BRH (1970), The effect of instrument averaging time on microwave power density measurements. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report BRH/DEP 70–12, June, 25 p., NTIS accession number PB 192 322.Google Scholar
  15. Burrows, M. L. and C. W. Niessen (1972), ELF communication system design. In Ocean ‘72: IEEE International Conference on Engineering in the Ocean Environment, IEEE publication 72 CHO 660–10CC, pp. 95–109.Google Scholar
  16. Cheung, A., H. Bassen, M. Swicord, and D. Witters (1976), Experimental calibration of a miniature electric field probe within simulated muscular tissues. In Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, Vol. II, selected papers of the USNC/URSI annual meeting, Boulder, Colorado, October 2023, 1975, ed. C. C. Johnson and M. L. Shore. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report (FDA) 77–8011, December, pp. 324–337, NTIS accession number PB 268 095.Google Scholar
  17. Conover, D. L. (1971), Evaluation of lithium fluoride for microwave dosimetry applications. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report BRH/DEP 71–6, April, 25 p., NTIS accession number PB 198 406.Google Scholar
  18. Crapuchettes, P. W. (1970), Microwave leakage instrumentation. In Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation, USDHEW publication BRH/DBE 70–2, pp. 210–216.Google Scholar
  19. Crawford, M. L. (1974), Generation of standard EM fields using TEM Transmission cells. IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. EMC-16, November, pp. 189–195.Google Scholar
  20. Ely, T. (1958), Field trial of Richardson microwave dosimeter. In Proceedings of the Second Tri-service Conference on Biological Effects of Microwave Energy, ed. E. G. Patti-shall and F. W. Banghgart, Astia document AD 131 477.Google Scholar
  21. Fletcher, K. and D. Woods (1969), Thin-film spherical bolometer for measurements of hazardous field intensities from 400 MHz to 40 GHz. Non-Ionizing Radiation, Vol 1, September, p. 57.Google Scholar
  22. Fraser-Smith, A. C. and D. B. Coates (1978), Large-amplitude ULF electromagnetic fields from BART. Radio Science, Vol. 13, No. 4., August, pp. 661–668.Google Scholar
  23. Hagn, G. H., S. C. Fralick, H. N. Shauer, and G. E. Barker (1971), A spectrum measurement/monitoring capability for the Federal government. Final report on contract OEP-SE70–102 prepared for Office of Telecommunications Policy by Stanford Research Institute, SRI project 8410, May.Google Scholar
  24. Herman, W. A. and D. M. Witters (1980), Microwave hazard instruments: an evaluation of the Narda 8100, Holaday, and Simpson 380M. U.S. Department of Health and Human Ser- vices, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report HHS publication (FDA) 80–8122, June, 37 p.Google Scholar
  25. Hewlett Packard (1974), Spectrum analysis, spectrum analyzer basics. Hewlett Packard application note 150, April, 50 p.Google Scholar
  26. Hopfer, S. (1972), An ultra-broadband probe for RF radiation measurements. In CPEM Digest 1972, proceedings of Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, June 26–29, 1972, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 64–66.Google Scholar
  27. Hopfer, S. and Z. Adler (1980), An ultra broad-band (200 kHz -26 GHz) high sensitivity probe, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. IM-29, No. 4, December, pp. 445–451.Google Scholar
  28. IEEE (1974), Special issue on extremely low-frequency communications, guest ed. J. R. Wait. IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-22, No. 4, April.Google Scholar
  29. IEEE (1978), Measurement of electric and magnetic fields from alternating current power lines. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-97, No. 4, July/August, pp. 1104–1114.Google Scholar
  30. IEEE (1979), IEEE recommended practices for measurement of electric and magnetic fields from ac power lines. IEEE standard 644–1979, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Iskander, M. F., C. H. Durney, and D. L. Jaggard (1980), The development of a microwave personnel dosimeter. Presented at Bioelectromagnetics Society symposium, San Antonio, Texas, September 14–18. Abstract in Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 1, No. 2, p. 238.Google Scholar
  32. John, W. (1975), The calibration problem of dipole probes for near-field measurements at microwave-radiators, Nachrichtentechn. Z., Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 89–92.Google Scholar
  33. Kanda, M., F. X. Ries, and D. R. Belsher (1979), A broadband, isotropic, real-time, electric-field sensor ( BIRES) using resistively loaded dipoles. NBS publication NBSIR 79–1622.Google Scholar
  34. Klein, H. F., M. L. Swicord, D. G. Brown, and R. L. Moore (1970), Investigation of the response of the Microlite 287 probe to microwave fields, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report BRH/DEP 70–20, August, 44 p., NTIS accession number PB 193 223.Google Scholar
  35. Kornberg, H. A., M. M. Stevenson, T. D. Bracken, S. Bortniak, and S. A. Annestrand (1980), Health effects of occupational exposure to ELF fields. Presented at Bioelectromagnetics Society symposium, San Antonio, Texas, September 14–18. Abstract in Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 1, No. 2, p. 238.Google Scholar
  36. Kotter, F. R. and M. Misakian (1977), AC transmission line field measurements. NBS technical report HCP/T-6010/E1, November.Google Scholar
  37. Kucia, H. R. (1972), Accuracy limitation in measurements of HF field intensities for protection against radiation hazards IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements, Vol. IM-21, No. 4, November, pp. 412–415.Google Scholar
  38. Lambdin, D. L. (1978), A comparison of measurement techniques to determine electric fields and magnetic flux under EHV overhead power transmission lines. USEPA technical report ORP/EAD 78–1, March, 14 p., NTIS accession number PB 292 067.Google Scholar
  39. Langlet, I. (1978), Investigation of some RF meters. National Institute of Radiation Protection report SSI: 1978–023, S-104 01 Stockholm, Sweden, July, 17 p.Google Scholar
  40. Larsen, E. G. (1979), Techniques for producing standard EM fields from 10 kHz to 10 GHz for evaluating radiation monitors. In Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems, proceedings of a symposium held in Ottawa, Canada, June 27–30, 1978, published by the International Microwave Power Institute, publication 78CH1438–1 MTT, pp. 96–112.Google Scholar
  41. Levine, H. and R. L. Moore (1970), Microwave oven test load evaluation and determination of internal microwave energy distribution. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Services Bureau of Radiological Health report BRH/DEP 70–23, August, 25 p., NTIS accession number PB 193 804.Google Scholar
  42. Matheson, R. J. (1977), A radio spectrum measurement system for frequency management data IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. EMC-19, No. 3, August, pp. 225230.Google Scholar
  43. McMahon, J. H. (1973), Capability of the FCC mobile monitoring van. In Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Record, Cleveland, Ohio, December 3–5.Google Scholar
  44. Mild, K. H. (1980), Occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 68, No. 1, January, pp. 12–17.Google Scholar
  45. Minin, B. A. (1974), Microwaves and human safety. Translated from Russian by Joint Publications Research Service, report JPRS 65506–1, 20 August 1975, available from National Technical Information Service, pp. 232–254.Google Scholar
  46. Moore, R. L., S. W. Smith, R. L. Cloke, and D. G. Brown (1970), A comparison of microwave detection instruments. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report BRH/DEP 70–7, April, 9 p., NTIS accession number PB 191 395.Google Scholar
  47. Morrison, H. F., N. E. Goldstein, M. Hoversten, G. Oppliger, and C. Riveros (1978), Description, field test and data analysis of a controlled-source EM system (EM-60). Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBL-7088, October.Google Scholar
  48. Rudge, A. W. and R. M. Knox (1970), Near-field instrumentation. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report BRH/ DEP 70–16, July, 69 p., NTIS accession number PB 194–748.Google Scholar
  49. Ruggera, P. S.,(1976), E-and H-field instrumentation and calibration below 50 MHz. In Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, Vol. II, selected papers of the USNC-URSI annual meeting, Boulder, Colorado, October 20–23, 1975, ed. C. C. Johnson and M. L. Shore. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health ServiceGoogle Scholar
  50. Bureau of Radiological Health report (FDA) 77–8011, December, pp. 281–296, NTIS accession number PB 268 095.Google Scholar
  51. Ruggera, P. S. (1977), Near-field measurements of RF fields. In symposium on Biological Effects and Measurement of Radiofrequency-Microwave (ed. D. G. Hazzard). U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report (FDA) 77–8026, July, pp. 104–116, NTIS accession number PB 272 906.Google Scholar
  52. Shih, C. H., J. DiPlacido, and B. J. Ware (1977), Analysis of parallel plate simulation of the transmission line electric field as related to biological effects laboratory studies. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-96, No. 3, May/June, pp. 962–968.Google Scholar
  53. Spiegel, R. J., E. H. Cooper, E. L. Bronaugh, and D. R. Kerns (1979), An improved optically isolated ELF electric field sensor. Presented at IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, in IEEE publication 79CH1383–9 EMC, pp. 429–434.Google Scholar
  54. Swicord, M. L. (1971), Microwave measurements and new types of detectors for evaluation of health hazards. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report BRH/DEP 71–1, January, 33 p., NTIS accession number PB 197 715.Google Scholar
  55. Swicord, M. L., H. Bassen, W. Herman, J. Dugg, and J. Bing (1976), Methods and instrumentation for the evaluation and calibration of microwave survey instruments. In Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, Vol. II, selected papers of the USNC/URSI annual meeting, Boulder, Colorado, October 20–23, 1975, ed. C. C. Johnson and M. L.Google Scholar
  56. Shore. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Bureau of Radiological Health report (FDA) 77–8011, December, pp. 297–309, NTIS accession number PB 268 095.Google Scholar
  57. Taggart, H. E. and J. L. Workman (1969), Calibration principles and procedures for field strength meters (30 Hz to 1 GHz). NBS Technical Note 3370, March.Google Scholar
  58. Tell, R. A. (1978), Near-field radiation properties of simple linear antennas with applications to radiofrequency hazards and broadcasting. USEPA technical report ORP/EAD 78–4, June, NTIS accession number PB 292 647.Google Scholar
  59. Tell, R. A., N. N. Hankin, J. C. Nelson, T. W. Athey, and D. E. Janes (1976), An automated measurement system for determining environmental radiofrequency field intensities II. In Proceedings of NBS symposium on Measurements for the Safe Use of Radiation, March 1976, NBS publication NBS SP 456 (ed. S. P. Fivozinsky ), pp. 203–213.Google Scholar
  60. Tell, R. A. and D. E. Janes (1975), Broadcast radiation: a second look. In Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, ed. by C. C. Johnson and M. L. Shore (selected papers of the USNC-URSI 1975 annual meeting, Boulder, Colorado, October), 2 volumes, USDHEW publication (FDA) 77–8011, NTIS accession number PB 268 095.Google Scholar
  61. Tell, R. A., D. L. Lambdin, R. E. Brown, and E. D. Mantiply (1979), Electric field strengths in the near-vicinity of FM radio broadcast antennas. Presented at 1979 IEEEGoogle Scholar
  62. Tell, R. A. and E. D. Mantiply (1980), Population exposure to VHF and UHF broadcast radiation in the United States. Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 68, No. 1, January, pp. 6–12.Google Scholar
  63. Tell, R. A. and J. C. Nelson (1974), RF pulse spectral measurements in the vicinity of several air traffic control radars. USEPA technical report EPA–520/1–74–005, May, 45 p., NTIS accession number PB 235 733.Google Scholar
  64. Tell, R. A., J. C. Nelson, D. L. Lambdin, T. W. Athey, N. N. Han–kin, and D. E. Janes (1977), An examination of electric fields under EHV overhead power transmission lines. USEPA technical report EPA–520/2–76–008, April, 39 p., NTIS accession number PB 270 613.Google Scholar
  65. White, D. R. J. (1971), EMI test instrumentation and systems, Vol. 4 of A Handbook Series on Electromagnetic Interfer-ence and Compatibility, published by Don White Consultants, Gainesville, Virginia.Google Scholar
  66. Wigdor, M. (1980), Electric fields under power lines (supplement to an examination of electric fields under EHV overhead power transmission lines). USEPA technical report ORP/EAD 80–1.Google Scholar
  67. Winch, R. P. (1963), Electricity and magnetism. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A. Tell
    • 1
  1. 1.Office of Radiation Programs Nonionizing Radiation Surveillance BranchUS Environmental Protection AgencyLas VegasUSA

Personalised recommendations