Cataractogenesis Induced by RF and MW Energy

  • Björn M. Tengroth
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 49)


Since the end of the 19th century intense nonionizing radiation has been considered a biological threat. The research work in those days were of a surprisingly good standard, and some of the results from this time are still relevant.


Cataract Formation Lens Capsule Lens Fibre Microwave Exposure Senile Cataract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. Kuwabara, J. H. Kinoshita, and D. G. Cogan, Electron microscope study of galactose-induced cataract, Invest. Ophthal. 8: 133 (1969).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. T. Philipson, Changes in the lens related to reduction in transparency, Exp. Eye Res. 16: 29 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Brini and J. Flamant, Cataracta glaucomatosa acuta, Exp. Eye Res. 16: 19 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Miller, J. L. Zuckerman, and G. D. Reynolds, Holographic filter to negate the effect of cataract, Arch. Ophthal. 90: 323 (1973).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. A. Schachar and S. A. Solin, The microscopic protein structure of the lens with a theory for cataract formation as determined by Raman spectroscopy of intact bovine lenses, Invest. Ophthal. 14: 380 (1975).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. M. Michaelson, Cutaneous perception of microwaves, J. Microwave Power 7: 67 (1972).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. M. Michaelson, Human exposure to nonionizing radiant energy - potential hazards and safety standards, Proc. IEEE 60: 389 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. M. Michaelson, Thermal effects of single and repeated exposures to microwaves–a review, Proc. Intern. Symp. Warsaw, Oct. 1973, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. M. Michaelson, Microwave and radiofrequency radiation, World Health Organization, Document ICP/CEP 803 (1977).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. M. Michaleson, Effects of exposure to microwaves problems and perspectives, Environ, Health Perspectives 8: 133 (1974).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. L. Carpenter, D. K. Biddle, and C. A. Van Ummersen, Opacities in the lens of the eye experimentally induced by exposure to microwave radiation, IRE Trans. on Medical Electronics, ME-7: 152 (1960).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. L. Carpenter, D. K. Biddle, and C. A. Van Ummersen, Biological effect of microwave radiation with particular reference to the eye, Proc. 3rd Intern. Conf. on Medical Electronics, London, England, 1960, pp. 401–408.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. L. Carpenter and C. A. Van Ummersen, The action of microwave radiation on the eye, J. Microwave Power 3: 3 (1968).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. L. Carpenter, Experimental microwave cataract: A review. Biological Effect and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation, ed. S. F. Cleary, Symp. Proc. Richmond, Virginia, 1969, pp. 76–81.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Appleton and G. C. McCrossan, Microwave lens effects in humans, Arch. Ophthal. 88 (1972).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Appleton, S. Hirsch, R. O. Kinion, M. Soles, G. C. McCrossan, and R. M. Neidlinger, Microwave lens effects in humans, Arch. Ophthal. 93 (1975).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Aurell and B. Tengroth, Lenticular and retinal changes secondary to microwave exposure, Acta Ophthal. 51: 764 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. M. Zaret, Cataract following use of microwave oven, 2032 N. Y. State Journal of Med., Oct. 1974.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. M. Zaret, I. T. Kaplan, and A. M. Kay, Clinical microwave cataracts, in: “Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation” ed. S. F. Cleary, Symp. Proc., Richmond, Virginia, 1969, p. 82.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. E. Paulsson, Measurements of 0.915, 2.45 and 9.0 GHz absorption in the human eye. Presented at 1976 European Microwave Conf.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Kramar, C. Harris, A. F. Emery, and A. W. Guy, Acute microwave irradiation and cataract formation in rabbits and monkeys. J. Microwave Power 13: 3 (1978).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. W. Guy, J. C. Lin, P. Kramar, and A. F. Emery, Effects of 2450 MHz radiation on the rabbit’s eye, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory, vol. MTT-23, 6 June, 1975.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. A. van Ummersen, D. G. Cogan, Effects of microwave radiation on the lens epithelium in the rabbit’s eye, Arch. Ophthal-P94 (1976).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    O. Hockwin and H.-R. Kock, Combined noxious influences, in: “Cataract and Abnormalities of the Lens”, ed. John G. Bellows, published by Gune and Stratton, Inc. pp. 243–254 (1975).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. Lydahl, L. E. Paulsson, B. Philipson, and P. Fagerholm, Combined effects of microwave irradiation and galactose feeding on the rat lens. Technical Report 91, Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden (1979).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    L. E. Paulsson, Y. Hamnerius, H. A. Hansson, and J. Sjöstrand, Retinal damage experimentally induced by microwave radiation at 55 mW/cm2, Acta Ophthal. 57: 183 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Björn M. Tengroth
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyKarolinska InstituteStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations