Cognitive and Neuropsychological Aspects of Affective Change Following Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Lance E. Trexler


The functional information processing capability of the central nervous system (CNS) may be systematically related to the type and severity of disturbance of affective behavior following traumatic head injury. This hypothesis rests upon the assumption that affective behavior consists of an “appropriate cognitive state plus a certain degree of arousal” (Valenstein and Heilman, 1979, p. 415). Further, one might hypothesize that inappropriate affective behavior, following head injury, is therefore related to alterations of an “appropriate” cognitive state and/or a disturbance of arousal mechanisms. Cognition, however, can be considered to represent a number of interrelated processes including attention, memory and ability to learn, among others. The formation of cognitive states involves the perception and processing of current environmental information as well as the processing and accessing of internally, neurally represented information. Further, the neural representation of information is most likely related to (1) the extent to which a behavioral (affective) repertoire has been learned and (2) the functional integrity and accessability of that information.


Traumatic Brain Injury Limbic System Reticular Formation Neural Representation Medial Forebrain Bundle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barrios, F.X., Cox, M.D. and Trexler, L.E. Behavior therapies. In: H.S. Moffic and G.L. Adams (Eds.), A clinician’s manual on mental health care: A multidisciplinary approach. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley, 1982.Google Scholar
  2. Battig, W.F. The flexibility of human memory. In: L.S. Cermak and F.I. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. Brady, J.V. and Nauta, W.J. Subcortical mechanisms in emotional behavior: Affective changes following septal forebrain lesions in the albino rat. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1953, 46, 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brodal, A. Neurological anatomy: In relation to clinical medicine, Third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. Epstein, A.N. Reciprocal changes in feeding behavior produced by intrahypothalamic chemical injections. American Journal of Physiology, 1960, 199, 969–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Gastaut, H. The role of the reticular formation in establishing conditioned reactions. In: H.H. Jasper, L.C. Proctor, R.S. Knighton, W.C. Noshay and R.T. Costello (Eds.), The reticular formation of the brain. Boston: Little, Brown, 1958.Google Scholar
  7. Green, J.D. and Arduini, A. Hippocampal electrical activity in arousal. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1954, 17, 533–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Haggard, M.P. and Parkinson, A.M. Stimulus and task factors as determinants of ear advantages. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 23, 168–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heilman, K.M., Schwartz, H.D. and Watson, R.T. Hypoarousal in patients with the neglect syndrome and emotional indifference. Neurology, 1978, 28, 229–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hicks, R.E. Introhemispheric response competition between vocal and unimanual performance in normal adult human males. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 14, 23–33.Google Scholar
  11. Hollon, S.D. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of drug-induced pansituational anxiety states. In: G. Emery, S. Hollon, and R. Bedrosian (Eds.), New directions in cognitive therapy: A casebook. New York: Guilford Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  12. Holloway, F.A. and Parsons, D.A. Unilateral brain damage and bilateral skin conductance levels in humans. Psychophysiology, 1969, 6, 138–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hubel, D.H. and Wiesel, T.N. Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex. Journal of Physiology, 1962, 160, 106–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hubel, D.H. and Wiesel, T.N. Receptive fields of cells in striate cortex of very young, visually inexperienced kittens. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1963, 26, 994–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Jacoby, L.L. and Craik, F.I. Effects of elaboration of processing at encoding and retrieval: Trace distinctiveness and recovery of initial context. In: L.S. Cermak and F.I. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  16. Jasper, H.H., Naquet, R. and King, E.E. Thalamocortical recruiting responses in sensory receiving areas in the cat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1955, 7, 99–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kessler, M.M. Spontaneous and reflex emotional responses differentiated by lesions in the diencephalon. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1941, 47, 225–227.Google Scholar
  18. Kimura, D. Manual activity during speaking. I. Right-handers. Neuropsychologia, 1973, 11, 45–50.Google Scholar
  19. Kinsbourne, M. Eye and head turning indicates cerebral lateralization. Science, 1972, 176, 539–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klein, D. Moscovitch, M. and Vigna, C. Attentional mechanisms and perceptual asymmetries in tachistoscopic recognition of words and faces. Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 55–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lindsley, D.B., Bowden, J.W. and Magoun, H.W. Effect upon the EEG of acute injury to the brainstem activating system. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1949, 1, 475–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lomas, J. and Kimura, D. Intra-hemispheric interaction between speaking and sequential manual activity. Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 23–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Luria, A.R. The working brain. Middlesex, England: Penguin Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  24. Luria, A.R. Higher cortical functions in man, Second edition. New York: Basic Books, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mahoney, M.J. and Arnkoff, D. Cognitive and self-control therapies. In: S.L. Garfield and A.E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis, Second edition, New York: John Wiley, 1978.Google Scholar
  26. Meichenbaum, D. The nature of internal dialogue - foundations of a theory of behavior change. In: Cognitive behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. Meichenbaum, D. and Novaco, R. Stress inoculation: A preventative approach. In: Spielberger and Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety, Volume 5. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1978.Google Scholar
  28. Morrow, L., Vrturski, B., Kim, Y. and Boller, F. Arousal response to emotional stimuli and laterality of lesion. Neuropsychologia, 1981, 19, 65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moscovitch, M. Information processing and the cerebral hemispheres. In: M.S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), Handbook of behavioral neurobiology: Volume 2 on neuropsychology. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  30. Murray, E.J. and Jacobson, L.I. Cognition and learning in traditional and behavioral therapy. In: S.L. Garfield and A.E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis, Second edition. New York: John Wiley, 1978.Google Scholar
  31. Penfield, W. and Milner, B. Memory deficit produced by bilateral lesions in the hippocampal zone. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1958, 79, 475–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Pribram, K.H. The primate frontal cortex - executive of the brain. In: K.H. Pribram and A.R. Luria (Eds.), Psychophysiology of the frontal lobes. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  33. Rickles, W.H. Central nervous system substrates of some psychophysiological variables. In: N.S. Greenfield and R.A. Sternback (Eds.), Handbook of psycholophysiology. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1972.Google Scholar
  34. Scheibel, M.E. and Scheibel, A.B. Structural organization of nonspecific thalamic nuclei and their projection toward the cortex. Brain Research, 1967, 6, 60–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thatcher, R.W. and John, E.R. Foundations of cognitive processes. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  36. Trexler, L.E. The effects of central stimulants on behavioral, psychophysiological and psychometric parameters of arousal and attention in traumatic head injury: Three case studies. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  37. Trexler, L.E. and Schmidt, N.S. The treatment of the emotional consequences of brain injury: Arousal responses and perception of complex affective stimuli. Paper presented at the European Meetings of the International Neuropsychological Society, Bergen, 1981.Google Scholar
  38. Tucker, D., Watson, R.T. and Heilman, K.M. Affective discrimination and evocation in patients with right parietal disease. Neurology, 1977, 27, 947–950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Valenstein, E. and Heilman, K.M. Emotional disorders resulting from lesions of the central nervous system. In: K.M. Heilman and E. Valenstein (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  40. Walley, R.E. and Weiden, T.D. Lateral inhibition and cognitive masking: A neuropsychological theory of attention. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 284–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wheatley, M.D. The hypothalamus and affective behavior in cats. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1944, 52, 296–316.Google Scholar
  42. Wilson, G.T. Cognitive behavior therapy: Paradigm shift or passing phase? In: J.P. Foreyt and D.P. Rathjen (Eds.), Cognitive behavior therapy: Research and application. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  43. Wolpe, J. The practice of behavior therapy. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  44. Woods, J.W. Taming of the wild Norway rat by rhinocephalic lesions. Nature, 1956, 170, 869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lance E. Trexler
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuropsychology Service Medical Psychology DepartmentCommunity Hospital of IndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations