Open-Heart Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease: Minimizing Adverse Psychological Sequelae in Families Facing Major High-Risk Surgery
Ever since the original studies of Spitz (1945), Bowlby (1960), Robertson (1958), and Anna Freud, there has been a growing awareness that separation, hospitalization, and illness of any kind represent a major crisis in the life of a child. However, only in recent years has the immense importance of the family been recognized as essential to the child’s care and prevention of serious psychological sequelae after illness. In addition, the advances of modern medicine and the complexity of the tertiary care hospital have turned certain types of major illnesses into a unique and unusual set of experiences for children and families. Certainly this is true of those illnesses that at one time were uniformly or predominantly fatal in early childhood.
KeywordsCongenital Heart Disease Ventricular Septal Defect Tertiary Care Hospital Retarded Child Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory
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