Erythrocytes as Carriers for Recombinant Cloned DNA

  • Garret M. Ihler
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 47)


The concept of carriers in pharmacology has evolved because various problems complicate the objective of delivering pharmacologically-active substances to the appropriate target in appropriate amounts. One objective achieved by carriers is protection. Small molecular weight drugs for example can be protected from serum enzymes and binding proteins by a carrier. Enzymes and proteins can be protected from circulating antibodies and it is possible that they can be sequestered from the immune system so that an immune response is not initiated. A second objective is carrier-mediated delivery to specific target sites. For example several groups (Alving et al., 1978; Black et al., 1977; New et al., 1978) have shown that liposomes containing antimonial drugs are more effective than the free drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis, presumably because liposomes are specifically taken up by the same reticuloendothelial cells that are infected by the intracellular parasite.


Recipient Cell Bacteriophage Lambda Magnetic Microsphere Free Phage Cloning Vehicle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alving, C. R., Steck, E. A., Chapman, W. L., Waits, V. B., Hendricks, L. D., Swartz, G. M., and Hanson, W. L., 1978, Therapy of leishmaniasis: Superior efficacies of liposome-encapsulated drugs, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 75: 2959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appleyard, R. K., McGregor, J. F., and Baird, K. M., 1956, Mutation to extended host range and the occurrence of phenotypic mixing in the temperate coliphage lambda, Virology, 2: 565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black, C. D. V., Watson, G. J. and Ward, R. J., 1977, The use of Pentostam liposomes in the chemotherapy of experimental leishmaníasis. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 71: 550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Capecchi, M. R., Yonder Haar, R. A., Capecchi, N.E., and Sveda, M. M., 1977, The isolation of a suppressible nonsense mutant in mammalian cells, Cell, 12: 371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Capecchi, M. R., 1980, High efficiency transformation by direct microinjection of DNA into cultured mammalian cells, Cell, 22: 479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collins, J., and Bruning, H.J., 1978, Plasmids useable as gene-cloning vectors in an in vitro packaging by coliphage A: “Cosmids”, Gene, 4: 85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DeLoach, J., and Ihler, G., 1977, A dialysis procedure for loading erythrocytes with enzymes and lipids, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 496: 136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DeLoach, J., Peters, S., Pinkard, O., Glew, R., and Ihler, G., 1977, Effect of glutaraldehyde treatment on enzyme-loaded erythrocytes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 496: 507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Wet, J. R., Daniels, D. L., Schroeder, J. L., Williams, B. G., Denniston-Thompson, K., Moore, D. D., Blattner, F. F., 1980, Restriction maps for twenty-one Charon vector phages, J. Virol. 33: 401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Endermann, R., Hindennach, I., and Henning, U., 1978, Major proteins of the Escherichia coli outer cell envelope membrane, FEBS Let., 88: 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hohn, B., and Murray, K., 1977, Packaging recombinant DNA molecules into bacteriophage particles in vitro, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 74: 3259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Humphreys, J., Edlind, T., and Ihler, G., 1981, Entrapment of viral vectors for recombinant DNA in erythrocytes, J. Appl. Biochem., (in press).Google Scholar
  13. Ihler, G., 1979, Potential use of erythrocytes as carriers for enzymes and drugs, in: “Drug Carriers in Biology and Medicine”, Gregoriadis, G., ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  14. Kaiser, A. D., and Hogness, D. S., 1960, The transformation of Escherichia coli with deoxyribonucleic acid from bacteriophage lambda - dg, J. Mol. Biol. 2: 392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaltoft, K., and Celis, J. E., 1978, Ghost mediated transfer of human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase into deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells by means of polyethylene glycol-induced fusion, Exptl.Cell. Res., 115: 423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Loyter, A., Zakai, N., and Kulka, R. G., 1975, “Ultramicroinjection” of macromolecules or small particles into animal cells, J. Cell Biol., 66:292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mackay, D. J., and Bode, V. C., 1976, Binding to isolated phage receptors and.ADNA release in vitro, 72: 167.Google Scholar
  18. Mandel, M., and Higa, A., 1970, Calcium-dependent bacteriophage DNA infection, J. Mol. Biol., 53: 159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Maniatis, T., Hardison, R. C., Lacy, E., Lauer, J., O’Connel, C., and Qon. D., 1978, The isolation of structural genes from libraries of eucaryotic DNA, Cell, 15: 687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. New, R. R. C., Chance, M. L., Thomas, S. C., and Peters, W., 1978, Antileishmanial activity of antimonials entrapped in liposomes, Nature, 272: 55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Perucho, M., Hanahan, D., and Wigler, M., 1980, Genetic and physical linkage of exogenous sequences in transformed cells, Cell, 22: 309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Randall-Hazelbauer, L., and Schwartz, M., 1973, Isolation of the bacteriophage Lambda receptor from Escherichia coli, J. Bacteriol., 116: 1436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Roa, M., and Scandella, D., 1976, Multiple steps during the interaction between coliphage lambda and its receptor protein in vitro, Virology, 72: 182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schlegel, R., and Rechsteiner, M., 1975, Microinjection of thymidine kinase and bovine serum albumin into mammalian cells by fusion with red blood cells, Cell. 5: 371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schwartz, M., and Le Minor, L., 1975 Occurrence of the bacteriophage lambda receptor in some enterobacteriaceae, J. Virology, 15: 679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Sternberg. N., Tiemeier, D., and Enquist, L., 1977 In vitro packaging of a ADam vector containing EcoRl DNA fragments of Escherichia coli and phage P1, Gene, 1: 255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Thomas, M., Cameron, J.R., and Davis, R. W., 1974. Viable molecular hybrids of bacteriophage lambda and eukaryotic DNA, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA., 71: 4579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Widder, K., Flouret, G., and Senyei, A., 1979, Magnetic microspheres: synthesis of a novel parenteral drug carrier, J. Pharm. Sci., 68: 79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wigler, M., Sweet, R., Sim, G. K., Wold, B., Pellicer, A., Lacy, E., Maniatis, T., Silverstein, S., and Axel, R., 1979, Transformation of mammalian cells with genes from procaryotes and eucaryotes, Cell, 16: 777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garret M. Ihler
    • 1
  1. 1.Texas A&M College of MedicineCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations