Advertisement

Immunoadjuvant Properties of Liposomes

  • N. van Rooijen
  • Ria van Nieuwmegen
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 47)

Abstract

Liposomes are artificially prepared spheres of concentric phospholipid bilayers separated by aqueous compartments. They form when water insoluble phospholipids are confronted with water. The phospholipid molecules try to reach a conformation in which their hydrophobic fatty acid groups are not in direct contact with water. The formation of phospholipid bilayers in which the relatively hydrophylic head groups are localized on both outer parts of the bilayers, whereas the hydrophobic fatty acid groups are localized directly opposite to each other in the inner part of the bilayer is a logical consequence.

Keywords

Human Serum Albumin Covalent Attachment Horse Radish Peroxidase Liposomal Membrane Adjuvant Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison, A.C., 1973, Effects of adjuvants on different cell types and their interactions in immune responses, in: “Immunopotentiation,” G.E.W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds., Elsevier Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  2. Allison, A.C. and Gregoriadis, G., 1974, Liposomes as immunological adjuvants, Nature, 252: 252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, J.D., Brand, C.M., Edwards, D.C. and Heath, T.D., 1975, Formation of virosomes from influenza subunits and liposomes, Lancet, ii: 899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alving C.R., 1977, Immune reactions of lipids and lipid model membrances, in: “The antigens,” M. Sela, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Alving, C.R., Banerji, B., Clements, J.D. and Richards, R.L., 1980a, Adjuvanticity of lipid A and lipid A fractions in liposomes, in: “Liposomes and immunobiology,” B.H. Tom and H.R. Six, eds., Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Alving, C.R., Banerji, B., Shiba, T., Kotani, S., Clements, J.D. and Richards, R.L., 1980b, Liposomes as vehicles for vaccines, Progr. Clin. Biol. Res., 47: 339.Google Scholar
  7. Alving, C.R. Iglewski, B.H., Urban, K.A., Moss, J., Richards, R.L. and Sadoff, J.C., 1980c, Binding of diphtheria toxin to phospholipids in liposomes, Proc. Nat., Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 77: 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banerji, B. and Alving, C.R., 1981, Anti-liposome antibodies induced by lipid A.I. Influence of ceramide, glycosphingolipids and phosphocholine on complement damage, J. Immunol., 126: 1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Basten, A., Miller, J.F.A.P., Warmer, N.L. and Pye, J., 1971, Specific inactivation of thymus-derived (T) and non-thymus-derived (b) lymphocytes by 125-labelled antigen, Nature New Biol., 231: 104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blumenthal, R., Weinstein, J.N., Sharrow, S.O. and Henkart, P., 1977, Liposome-lymphocyte interaction: Saturable sites for transfer and intracellular release of liposome contents, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 74: 5603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bomford, R., 1980, The comparative selectivity of adjuvants for humoral and cell-mediated immunity, Clin. Exp. Immunol., 39: 426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boguet, P., 1979, Interaction of diphtheria toxin fragments A, B and protein crm 45 with liposomes, Eur. J. Biochem., 100: 483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bucher, D.J., Kharitonenkov, I.G., Zakomirdin, J.A., Grigoriev, V.B., Klimenko, S.M. and Davis, J.F., 1980, Incorporation of influenza virus M-protein into liposomes, J. Virology, 36: 586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Campbell, P.I., 1980, Liposome inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA of L1210 cells in culture, IRCS Medic. Sci., 8: 814.Google Scholar
  15. Dancey, G.F., Yasuda, T. and Kinsky, S.C., 1977, Enhancement of liposomal model membrane immunogenicity by incorporation of lipid A, J. Immunol., 119: 1868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Davies, M., Stewart-Tull, D.E.S. and Jackson, D.M., 1978, The binding of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli to mammalian cell membranes and its effect on liposomes, Bioch. Bioph. Acta, 508: 260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dresdner, G., Ehrenberg, A., Hammarstrom, L. and Smith, E., 1979, Interaction between lymphocytes and lecithin-cholesterol vesicles, Acta Chem. Scand. B., 33: 599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dresser, D.W., 1961, Effectiveness of lipid and lipidophilic substances as adjuvants, Nature, 191: 1169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dresser, D.W. and Phillips, J.M., 1973, The cellular targets for the action of adjuvants: T-adjuvants and B-adjuvants, in: “Immunopotentiation,” G.E.W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  20. Edelman, R., 1980, Vaccine adjuvants, Rev. Infect. Dis., 2: 370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferber, E. and Resch, K., 1977, Structure and physiologic role of lipids in the lymphocyte membrane, in: “The lymphocyte,” part II, J.J. Marchalonis, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Fishman, Y. and Citri, N., 1975, L-Asparaginase entrapped in liposomes: Preparation and properties, FEBS Letters, 60: 17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gerlier, D., Sakai, F. and Dore, J.F., 1980, Induction of antibody response to liposome-associated Gross-virus cell-surface antigen (GCSAa) Br. J. Cancer, 41: 236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gregoriadis, G., 1980a, Tailoring liposome structure, Nature, 283: 815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gregoriadis, G., 1980b, The liposome drug-carrier concept: its development and future, in: “Liposomes in biological systems,” G. Gregoriadis and A.C. Allison, eds., John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  26. Gregoriadis, G., 1980c, Recent progress in liposome research, in: “Liposomes in biological systems,” G. Gregoriadis and A.C. Allison, eds., John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  27. Gregoriadis, G., 1980d, Targeting of drugs: Possibilities in viral chemotherapy and prophylaxis, Pharmacol. Therap., 10: 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gregoriadis, G. and Allison, A.C., 1974, Entrapment of proteins in liposomes prevents allergic reactions in pre-immunised mice. FEBS Letters, 45: 71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gregoriadis, G. and Manesis, E.K., 1980, Liposomes as immunological adjuvants for hepatitis B surface antigens, in: “Liposomes and immunobiology,” B.H. Tom and H.R. Six, eds., Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Gregoriadis, G. and Neerunjun, E.D., 1975, Homing of liposomes to target cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com., 65: 537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gregoriadis, G., Siliprandi, N. and Turchetto, E., 1977, Possible implications in the use of exogenous phospholipids, Life Sci., 20: 1773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heath, T.D., Edwards, D.C. and Ryman, B.E., 1976, The adjuvant properties of liposomes, Biochem. Soc. Trans., 4: 129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Heath, T.D., Macher, B.A. and Papahadjopoulos, D., 1981, Covalent attachment of immunoglobulins to liposomes via glycosphingolipids, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 640: 66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heath, T.D., Robertson, D., Birbeck, M.S.C. and Davies, A.J.S., 1980, Covalent attachment of horseradish peroxidase to the outer surface of liposomes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 599: 42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoekstra, D. and Scherphof, G., 1979, Effect of fetal calf serum and serum protein fractions on the uptake of liposomal phosphatidylcholine by rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 551: 109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huang, A., Huang, L. and Kennel, S.J., 1980, Monoclonal antibody covalently coupled with fatty acid; a reagent for in vitro liposome targeting, J. Biol. Chem., 255: 8015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Huang, L., and Kennel, S.J., 1979, Binding of immunoglobulin G to phospholipid vesicles by sonication, Biochemistry, 18: 1702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hudson, L.D.S., Fiddler, M.B. and Desnick, R.J., 1979, Enzyme therapy X. Immune response induced by enzyme-and buffer-loaded liposomes in C3H/HeJ Gus mice, J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 208: 507.Google Scholar
  39. Johnson, S.M., 1975, The inability of macrophages to digest liposomes containing a high proportion of cholesterol, Biochem. Soc. Trans., 3: 160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Katz, D.H. and Benacerraf, B., 1972, The regulatory influence of activated T cells on B cell responses to antigen, Adv. Immunol., 15: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kimelberg, H.K., Tracy, T.F., Biddlecome, S.M. and Bourke, R.S., 1976, The effect of entrapment in liposomes on the in vivo distribution of 3H-methotrexate in a primate, Cancer Res., 36: 2949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kinsky, S.C., 1980, Factors affecting liposomal model membrane immunogenicity, in: “Liposomes and immunobiology,” B.H. Tom and H.R. Six, eds., Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Kramers, M.T.C., Patrick, J., Bottomley, J.M., Quinn, P.J. and Chapman, D., 1980, Studies of liposome interactions with rat thymocytes, Eur. J. Biochem., 110: 579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lawman, M.J.P., Naylor, P.T., Huang, L., Courtney, R.J. and Rouse, B.T., 1981, Cell-mediated immunity to Herpes simplex virus: induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses by viral antigens incorporated into liposomes, J. Immunol., 126: 304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Leserman, L.D., Barbet, J. and Kourilsky, F., 1980, Targeting to cells of fluorescent liposomes covalently coupled with monoclonal antibody or protein A, Nature, 288: 602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morein, B., Helenius, A., Simons, K., Pettersson, R., Kaariainen, L. and Schirrmacher, V., 1978, Effective subunit vaccines against an enveloped animal virus, Nature, 276: 715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ng, M.H., Ng, W.S., Ho, W.K.K., Fung, K.P. and Lamelin, J.P., 1978, Modulation of phytohemagglutinin-mediated lymphocyte stimulation by egg lecithin, Exp. Cell Res., 116: 387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Olsson, L., Kaplan, H.S., 1980, Human-human hybridomas producingmonoclonal antibodies of predefined antigenic specificity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 77: 5429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Onji, T. and Lium M.S., 1979, Changes in surface charge density on liposomes induced by Escherichia coli endotoxin, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 558: 320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ostro, M.J., Bessinger, B., Summers, J.F. and Dray, S., 1980, Liposome modulations of surface immunoglobulins on rabbit spleen cells, J. Immunol., 124: 2956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ozato, K., Huang, L. and Pagano, R.E., 1978, Interactions of phospholipid vesicles with murine lymphocytes II. Correlation between altered surface properties and enhanced proliferative response, Membrane Chem., 1: 27.Google Scholar
  52. Pagano, R.E. and Weinstein, J.N., 1978, Interactions of liposomes with mammalian cells, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng., 7: 435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Paraskevas, F., Lee, S.T., Orr, K.B. and Israels, L.G., 1972, A receptor for Fc fragments on mouse B-lymphocytes, J. Immunol., 108: 1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Plesser, Y.M., Doljansky, F. and Polliack, A., 1979, Alteration in lymphocyte surface morphology and membrane fluidity induced by cholesterol depletion, Cell Molec. Biol., 25: 203.Google Scholar
  55. Rivnay, B., Globerson, A. and Shinitzky, M., 1978, Perturbation of lymphocyte response to concanavalin A by exogenous cholesterol and lecithin, Eur. J. Immunol., 8: 185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rottem, S., 1978, The effect of lipid A on the fluidity and permeability properties of phospholipid dispersions, FEBS letters, 95: 121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ryman, B.E. and Tyrrell, D.A., 1979, Liposomes - methodology and applications, in: “Lysosomes in biology and pathology,” vol. 6, J.T. Dingle, P.J. Jacques and I.H. Shaw, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  58. Ryman, B.E. and Tyrrell, D.A., 1980, Liposomes - bags of potential, Essays Biochem., 18: 49.Google Scholar
  59. Sakai, F., Gerlier, D., Dore, J.F., 1980, Association of Gross virus-associated cell-surface antigen with liposomes, Br. J. Cancer, 41: 227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sanchez, Y., Ionescu-Matiu, I., Dreesman, G.R., Kramp, W., Six, H.R., Hollinger, F.B. and Melnick, J.L., 1980, Humoral and cellular immunity to Hepatitis B virus-derived antigens: Comparative activity of Freund complete adjuvant, alum and liposomes, Infect. Immun., 30: 728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Schieren, H., Weissmann, G., Seligman, M. and Coleman, P., 1978, Interactions of immunoglobulins with liposomes: An ESR and diffusion study demonstrating protection by hydrocortisone, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 82: 1160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schuster, B.G., Neidig, M., Alving, B.M. and Alving, C.R., 1979, Production of antibodies against phosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and lipid A by injection of liposomes containing lipid A, J. Immunol., 122: 900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Shi-Hua Chen, S. and Keenan, R.M., 1977, Effect of phosphatidylcholine liposomes on the mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte activation, Biochim. Biophys. Res. Commun., 79: 852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Siddiqui, W.A., Taylor, D.W., Kan, S.C., Kramer, K., Richmond-Crum, S.M., Kotani, S., Shiba, T., Kusumoto, S., 1978, Vaccination of experimental monkeys against Plasmodium falciparum: A possible safe adjuvant, Science, 201: 1237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Six, H.R., Kramp, W.J.. Kasel, J.A., 1980, Effects of liposomes on serological responses following immunization with adenovirus purified type 5 subunit vaccines, in: “Liposomes and immunobiology,” B.H. Tom and H.R. Six, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  66. Strejan, G.H., Smith, P.M., Grant, C.W. and Surlan, D., 1979, Naturally occurring antibodies to liposomes I. Rabbit antibodies to dphingomyelin-containing liposomes before and after immunization with unrelated antigens, J. Immunol., 123: 370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Sunamoto, J., Iwamoto, K., Kondo, H. and Shinkai, S., 1980, Liposomal membranes VI. Polysaccharide-induced aggregation of multilamellar liposomes of egg lecithin, J. Biochem., 88: 1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Szoka, F. and Papahadjopoulos, D., 1980, Comparative properties and methods of preparation of lipid vesicles (liposomes), Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng., 9: 567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Takeuchi, Y. and Nikaido, H., 1981, Persistence of segregated phospholipid domains in phospholipid-lipopolysaccharide mixed bilayers: Studies with spin-labelled phospholipids, Biochemistry, 20: 523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tom, B.H., 1980, An overview: liposomes and immunobiology - macrophages, liposomes and tailored immunity, in: “Liposomes and immunobiology,” B.H. Tom and H.R. Six, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  71. Torchilin, V.P., Khaw, B.A., Smirnov, V.N. and Haber, E., 1979, Preservation of antimyosin antibody activity after covalent coupling to liposomes, Biochim. Biophys. Res. Commun., 89: 1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Torchilin, V.P., Berdichevsky, V.R., Barsukiv, A.A. and Smirnov, V.N., 1980, Coating liposomes with protein decreases their capture by macrophages, FEBS Letters, 111: 184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Unanue, E.R., 1978, The regulation of lymphocyte functions by the macrophage, Immun. Rev., 40: 227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Van Houte, A.J., Snippe, H. and Willers, J.M.N., 1979, Characterization of immunogenic properties of haptenated liposomal model membranes in mice. I. Thymus independence of the antigen, Immunology, 37: 505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Van Rooijen, N. and Streefkerk, J.G., 1976, Autoradiography and immunohistoperoxidase techniques applied to the same tissue section, J. Immunol. Meth., 10: 379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Van Rooijen, N. and Van Nieuwmegen, R., 1977, Liposomes in immunology: The immune response against antigen-containing liposomes, Immunol. Commun., 6: 489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Van Rooijen, N. and Van Nieuwmegen, R., 1978a, Liposomes in immunology: Further evidence for the adjuvant activity of liposomes, Immunol. Commun., 7: 635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Van Rooijen, N. and Van Nieuwmegen, R., 1978b, Fluorochrome staining of multilamellar liposomes, Stain Technol., 53: 307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Van Rooijen, N. and Van Nieuwmegen, R., 1979a, Liposomes in immunology: Impairment of the adjuvant effect of liposomes by incorporation of the adjuvant lysolecithin and the role of macrophages, Immunol. Commun., 8: 381.Google Scholar
  80. Van Rooijen, N. and Van Nieuwmegen, R., 1979b, Attempts to study the localization of liposomes and liposome entrapped antigen in the spleen, Acta Histochem., 65: 41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Van Rooijen, N. and Van Nieuwmegen, R., 1980a, Liposomes in immunology: Evidence that their adjuvant effect results from surface exposition of the antigens, Cell. Immunol., 49: 402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Van Rooijen, N. and Van Nieuwmegen, R., 1980b, Liposomes in immunology: Multilamellar phosphatidylcholine liposomes as a simple, biodegradable and harmless adjuvant without any immunogenic activity of its own, Immunol. Commun., 9: 243.Google Scholar
  83. Van Rooijen, N. and Van Nieuwmegen, R., 1980c, Endotoxin enhanced adjuvant effect of liposomes, particularly when antigen and endotoxin are incorporated within the same liposome, Immunol. Commun., 9: 747.Google Scholar
  84. Van Rooijen, N., Van Nieuwmegen, R. and Kors, N., 1981, The secondary immune response against liposome associated antigens, Immunol. Commun: in press.Google Scholar
  85. Weissmann, G., Brand, A. and Franklin, E.C., 1974, Interaction of immunoglobulins with liposomes, J. Clin. Invest., 53: 536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yasuda, T., Dancey, G.F. and Kinsky, S.C., 1977, Immunogenic properties of liposomal model membranes in mice, J. Immunol., 119: 1863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Zborowski, J., Roerdink, F. and Scherphof, G., 1977, Leakage of sucrose from phosphatidylcholine liposomes induced by interaction with serum albumin, Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 497: 183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. van Rooijen
    • 1
  • Ria van Nieuwmegen
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical FacultyFree UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations