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Stimulation of Host Response Against Metastatic Tumors by Liposome-Encapsulated Immunomodulators

  • George Poste
  • Corazon Bucana
  • Isaiah J. Fidler
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 47)

Abstract

The metastatic spread of malignant tumors to form metastases at other sites in the body remains the principal cause of failure in the treatment of neoplastic disease1. Several factors are responsible for this unfortunate situation. First, metastases are frequently too small to be detected at the time the primary tumor is removed. Second, widespread dissemination of metastases often takes place before symptoms of metastatic disease occur. Third, the anatomic location of many metastatic lesions renders them inaccessible to surgical removal and/or limits the effective dose of therapeutic agents that reach metastases. The final, and most formidable, problem concerns emergence of metastatic lesions that are resistant to conventional therapy. Recent work suggests that metastases arise from non-random spread of specialized subpopulations of cells within the primary tumor and that the responsiveness of these metastatic subpopulations to therapy may not only differ from that of non-metastatic tumor cells in the primary tumor but may also vary significantly between the tumor cell subpopulations present in individual metastases within the same patient (review, 2). The depressing implication of this marked heterogeneity in the response of malignant cells to chemotherapy and other therapeutic modalities is that the only successful approach to the therapy of metastases will be one that circumvents the problem of cellular diversity between tumor cells in primary and metastatic lesions, and between different metastatic foci.

Keywords

Alveolar Macrophage None None Tumoricidal Activity Muramyl Dipeptide Alveolar Macro 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Poste
    • 1
    • 2
  • Corazon Bucana
    • 3
  • Isaiah J. Fidler
    • 3
  1. 1.Smith Kline and French LaboratoriesPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Cancer Metastasis and Treatment LaboratoryNCI-Frederick Cancer Research CenterFrederickUSA

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