Alteration of Chloroform-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Exogenous Ketones
Chemical-induced potentiation of haloalkane toxicity is not a novel observation. While potentiation of liver injury is the most frequently examined aspect of this problem (Hewitt et al., 1980a), a number of reports have indicated that the renal injury produced by various haloalkanes can be exacerbated by prior exposure to a number of different compounds. For example, Klaassen and Plaa (1966) demonstrated that a single 5 g/kg dose of ethanol significantly increased the chloroform (CHCl3)- and 1,1,2-trichloroethane-induced depression of mouse kidney phenolsulfonephthalein excretion. Subsequently, Watrous and Plaa (1971) found that two additional alcohols, isobutyl and isoamyl alcohol, potentiated CHCl3-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. However, these investigators also found that seven other alcohols did not increase the renal damage produced by CHCl3. Recently, Kluwe and Hook (1978) and Kluwe et al (1979) found that mice fed polybrominated biphenyls were markedly more susceptible to the nephrotoxic effects of CHCl3, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane. In contrast, pretreatment of mice with phénobarbital had no effect on CHCl3-induced nephrotoxicity, whereas pretreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or polychlorinated biphenyls actually reduced the renal toxicity of CHCl3 (Kluwe et al., 1978).
KeywordsBlood Urea Nitrogen Renal Damage Environmental Toxicant Carbonyl Moiety Renal Cortical Slice
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