Mechanisms of Acute Nephrotoxicity
Kidney disease is unquestionably a major contributing factor to health problems in the United States, with renal failure alone estimated to cause up to 100,000 deaths yearly (DHEW-NIH, 1978). Although the proportion of kidney disease directly caused, or contributed to, by chemical exposures is unknown, the common association of some analgesics, antibiotics, and heavy metals with renal dysfunction indicates the innate susceptibility of the human kidney to chemical insult. Occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals other than heavy metals are less clearly associated with nephrotoxicity, possibly because of inadequate patient histories and worker exposure records, insensitive diagnostic tests, and the lack of followup studies. The large population exposed to halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds at work or in the general environment, in particular, necessitates an assessment of the effects of these potentially nephrotoxic compounds on human renal function.
KeywordsAliphatic Hydrocarbon Microsomal Enzyme Proximal Tubular Cell Xenobiotic Metabolism Environmental Toxicant
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