Male Inexpressiveness

Psychological and Social Aspects
  • Jack O. Balswick


Manhood has traditionally been defined not only in terms of what “real” men should do, but also in terms of what a real man would not be caught doing. Inexpressiveness is one of the characteristics of males which has traditionally been defined in negative terms. An expressive male is simply one who has feelings and verbally expresses them. An inexpressive male is one who does not verbally express his feelings, either because he has no feelings or because he has been socialized not to. Another way to think of inexpressiveness is as the lack of affective self-disclosure (see Chapter 16, by Dosser).


Emotional Expressiveness Role Theory Male Role Male Friend Love Relationship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wayne J: as reported in, A Forum for Changing Men 56:2, 1979Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Balswick J: Types of inexpressive male roles, in Men In Difficult Times. Edited by Lewis RA. New York, Prentice-Hall, 1980Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Balswick J: The effect of spouse companionship support on employment success. J Marriage Fam 32: 212–215, 1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hurvitz N: Marital strain in the blue-collar family, in Blue-Collar World. Edited by Shostak A, Gomberg W. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, pp 92–109Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Komarovsky M: Blue-Collar Marriage. New York, Random House, 1962Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rainwater L: Family Design: Marital Sexuality, Family Size and Contraception. Chicago, Aldine, 1965Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bronfenbrenner U: Some familial antecendents of responsibility and leadership in adolescents, in Leadership and Interpersonal Behavior. Edited by Petrullo L, Bass B. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961, pp 239–271Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Emmerich W: Parental identification in young children. Genetic Psychol Monographs 60: 257–308, 1959Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johnson MM: Sex role learning in the nuclear family. Child Dev 34: 319–333, 1963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fromm E: Man For Himself: An Inquiry Into the Psychology of Ethics. Greenwich, Fawcett Press, 1947, pp 75–89Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maccoby EE, Jacklin CN: The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1974Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meador C: Expressiveness: Self concept and sex differences in children, unpublished paper, 1980Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Balkwell C, Balswick J, Balkwell J: On black and white family patterns in America: Their impact on the expressive aspect of sex-role socialization. J Marriage Fam 40: 743–747, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balswick J, Avertt C: Differences in expressiveness: Gender, interpersonal orientation, and perceived parental expressiveness as contributing factors. J Marriage Fam 38: 121–127, 1977Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Allen J, Haccoun D: Sex differences in emotionality: A multidimensional approach. Human Relations 8: 711–722, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jourard SM: Age trends in self-disclosure. Merrill-Palmer Quart 7: 191–197, 1961Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jourard SM, Landsman MJ: Cognition, catharsis, and the “dyadic effect” in men’s self-disclosing literature. Merrill-Palmer Quart 6: 178–186, 1960Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jourard SM, Lasakow P: Some factors in self-disclosure. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 56: 92–98, 1958Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jourard SM: The Transparent Self. Princeton, New Jersey, Van Nostrand, 1964Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Levinger L, Senn P: Disclosure of feelings in marriage. Merrill-Palmer Quart 13: 237–249, 1967Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fuller FF: Influence of sex of counselor and of client on client expressions of feeling. J Counseling Psychol 10: 34–40, 1963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Janofsky AI: Affective self-disclosure in telephone versus face to face interviews. J Humanistic Psychol 11: 93–103, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Highlen PS, Gillis SF: Effects of situational factors, sex, and attitude on affective self-disclosure and anxiety. J Counseling Psychol 25: 270–276, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Highlen PS, Johnston B: Effects of situational variables on affective self-disclosure with acquaintances. J Counseling Psychol 26: 255–258, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Balswick J: The inexpressive male: Functional conflict and role theory as contrasting explanations. Fam Relations 28: 331–336, 1979Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Turner RH: Moral judgment: A study in roles. Am Sociol Rev 17: 70–77, 1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Blumer H: Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1969Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Turner RH: Family Interaction. New York, Wiley, 1970Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zelditch MM: Role differentiation in the nuclear family: A comparative study, in Family, Socialization, and Interaction Process, Edited by Parson I, Bales RF. Glencoe, Free Press, 1955, pp 307–351Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hartley RE: Sex-role pressures and the socialization of the male child. Psychol Rep 5: 457–468, 1959Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brown DG: Masculinity-femininity development in children. J Counseling Psychol 21: 197–203, 1957Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gray SW: Masculinity-femininity in relation to anxiety and social acceptance. Child Dev 28: 203–214, 1957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hacker HM: The new burdens of masculinity. Marriage Fam Living 19: 227–233, 1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Coleman JS: The Adolescent Society. New York, Free Press, 1962Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hollingshead AB: Elmstown’s Youth. New York, Wiley, 1949Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hannarz U: Soulside. New York, Columbia University Press, 1969Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Leibow E: Tally’s Corner. Boston, Little, Brown, 1967Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Whyte WF: Street Corner Society. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1943Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kieser RL: The Vice Lords. New York, Holt, 1969Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Miller B: Lower class culture as a generation milieu of gang delinquency. J Soc Issues 121: 5–19, 1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rosenberg B, Silverstein H: The Varieties of Delinquent Experience. Waltham, Blaisdell, 1969Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Short JF, Strodtbeck FL: Group Process and Gang Delinquency. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1965Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sattel JW: The inexpressive male: Tragedy or sexual politics? Soc Problems 23: 469–477, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Balswick J, Peek C: The inexpressive male: A tragedy of American society. Fam Coordinator 20: 363–368, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    L’Abate L: Inexpressive males or overexpressive females? A reply to Balswick. Fam Relations 29: 229–230, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chodorow N: The Reproduction of Mothering. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1978Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kirkwood J: P.S. Your Cat Is Dead. New York, Warner, 1973, p 23Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Korda M: Male Chauvinism: How It Works. New York, Random House, 1973Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Balswick J, Peek CW: The inexpressive male and family relationships during early adulthood. Soc Symposium 4: 1–12, 1970Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cuber JF, Harroff PB: The Significant Americans: A Study of Sexual Behavior among the Affluent. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1965Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Burgess EW, Locke HJ: The Family. NewYork, American Book, 1955Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Blood R, Wolfe D: Husbands and Wives: The Dynamics of Married Living. Glencoe, Free Press, 1960Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Heiss JS: Degree of intimacy and male-female interaction. Sociometry 25: 197–208, 1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Leik RK: Instrumentality and emotionality in family interaction. Sociometry 26: 131–45, 1963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bartemeier L: The contribution of the father to the mental health of the family. Am J Psychiatry 110: 277–280, 1953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Benson L: Fatherhood: A Sociological Perspective. New York, Random House, 1968Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Brenton M: The American Male. New York, Coward-McCann, 1966Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Balswick J: Why husbands can’t say “I Love You.” Woman’s Day 64:66, 67, 160, 1974Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pleck JH: The male sex role: Definitions, problems, and sources of change. J Soc Issues 32: 155–164, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Benedict R: Continuities and discontinuities in cultural conditioning. Psychiatry 1: 161–167, 1938Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Guttman D: Women and the concept of ego strength. Merrill-Palmer Quart 11: 229–240, 1965Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    David DS, Brannon R: The Forty-Nine Percent Majority: The Male Sex Role. Reading, Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley, 1976Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack O. Balswick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pastoral and Family MinistriesFuller Theological SeminaryPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations