Clinical Behavior Therapy and the Male Sex Role

  • Marvin R. Goldfried
  • Jerry M. Friedman

Abstract

Men rarely present themselves for treatment because they have identified problems associated with their roles as men. Yet such problems may often be at the core of the difficulties they do present with: difficulties they are experiencing in their marriages, problems with excessive use of alcohol, sexual dysfunctioning, stress-related problems, as well as the full array of psychological difficulties one is likely to encounter clinically. Behavior therapy, while having relevance to an increasingly more diverse set of clinical phenomena, has had little to say directly about problems centered around men’s issues. However, behavior therapy does have a history of flexibility in areas of application, as it provides the clinician with more of a technology than a direction for specific areas of applicability. Behavioral procedures originally developed for one specific purpose have often later been applied to a wide variety of other clinical problems. The newly emerging field of “behavioral medicine” has drawn extensively on behavioral intervention methods for purposes of dealing with various physical disorders. And assertion training, while originally developed with no thought whatsoever as to its utility in dealing with problems associated with the female sex role, has nonetheless been used to help women become more instrumental in their functioning.

Keywords

Placebo Depression Propen Expense Posites 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bern SL: Psychology looks at sex roles: Where have all the androgynous people gone? Presented at a Symposium on Women, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, May, 1972Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parson T, Bales RF: Family, Socialization and Interaction Process. New York, Free Press, 1955Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jourard S: The Transparent Self. New York, Var. Nostrand Reinhold, 1971Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Derlaga VJ, Chaikin AL: Norms affecting self-disclosure in men and women. J Consult Clin Psychol 44: 376–380, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lewis R: Emotional intimacy among men. J Soc Issues 34: 101–121, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fasteau MF: The Male Machine. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1974Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hartley R: Sex role pressures in the socialization of the male child. Psychol Rep 5: 457–468, 1959Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vinacke WE, Gullickson GR: Age and sex differences in the formation of coalitions. Child Dev 35: 1217–1231, 1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Szal J: Sex differences in the cooperative and competitive behaviors of nursery school children. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Stanford University, 1972Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harrison J: Warning: The male sex role may be dangerous to your health. J Soc Issues 34: 184–195, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Waldron I: Why do women live longer than men? Soc Science Med 10: 349–362, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    American Heart Association: Heart Facts. New York, American Heart Association, 1974Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roseman RH, Friedman M: Neurogenic factors in pathogenesis of coronary heart disease. Med Clin North Am 58: 269–279, 1974Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Friedman M: Pathogenesis of Coronary Artery Disease. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1969Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jenkins CD: Recent evidence supporting ecologic and social risk factors for coronary disease. New Eng J Med 294:987–994, 1033–1038, 1976Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosenman RH, Friedman M, Straus R, et al.: A predictive study of coronary heart disease. Jama 189: 103–110, 1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rosenman RH, Brand BJ, Scholtz RI: Multivariate prediction of coronary heart disease during 8.5 year follow up in the Western Collaborative Group Study. Am J Cardiol 37: 903–910, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chesney N: Cultural and sex differences in the Type “A” pattern. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York, Sept 4, 1979Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rahe RH, Hervig L, Rosenman RH: Heritability of Type “A” behavior. Psychosom Med 40: 478–487, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rosenman RH: The role of behavior patterns and neurogenic factors in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, in Stress and the Heart. Edited by Elliot RS. New York, Futura Publications, 1974, pp 123–141Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Utensky A, Faralli V, Heebner D, et al.: Elements of the coronary prone behavior pattern in children and teenagers. J Psychosom Res 20: 439–444, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Waldron I: The coronary-prone behavior pattern, blood pressure, employment and socio-economic status in women. J Psychosom Res 22: 79–87, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Waldron I: Sex differences in the coronary-prone behavior pattern, in Coronary-prone Behavior. Edited by Dembroski TM. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1978, pp 199–206Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Seligman MEP: Helplessness. San Francisco, Freeman, 1975Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Glass DC: Behavior Patterns, Stress, and Coronary Disease. Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1977Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Glick PC, Norton AJ: Perspectives on the recent upturn in divorce and remarriage. Demography 10: 301–314, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lederer WI, Jackson DD: The Mirages of Marriage. New York, Norton, 1968Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Scanzoni J: Sexual Bargaining: Power Politics in the American Marriage. New York, Prentice Hall, 1972Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gottman J, Notarius C, Gonso J, et al.: A Couple’s Guide to Communication. Champaign, Research, 1976Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Broderick J, Friedman JM, Carr E: Negotiation and contracting, in In Response to Aggression. Edited by Goldstein A, Carr E, Davidson W, et al. New York, Pergamon Press, 1981Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zilbergeld B: Male Sexuality: A Guide to Sexual Fulfillment. Boston, Little, Brown, 1978Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kaplan HS: Disorders of Desire. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1979Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Masters WH, Johnson VE: Human Sexual Inadequacy. Boston, Little, Brown, 1970Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kaplan HS: The New Sex Therapy. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1974Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Friedman JM, Weiler SJ, LoPiccolo J, et al.: Sexual dysfunctions and their treatment, in International Handbook of Behavior Modification and Therapy. Edited by Bellack A, Hersen M, Kazdin A. New York, Plenum, 1982Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Calahan D: Implications of American drinking practices and attitudes for prevention and treat-ment of alcoholism, in Behavioral Approaches to Alcoholism. Edited by Marlatt GA, Nathan PE. New Brunswick, Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 1978, pp 6–26Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Efron V, Keller M, Gurioli C: Statistics on Consumption of Alcohol and on Alcoholism. New Brunswick, Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 1974Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Marlatt G A, Nathan PE: Behavioral Approaches to Alcoholism. New Brunswick, Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 1978Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Marlatt G A: Alcohol use and problem drinking: A cognitive-behavioral analysis, in Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions: Theory, Research, and Procedures. Edited by Kendall PC, Hollon SD. New York, Academic Press, 1979, pp 319–355Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Goldfried MR, Davison GC: Clinical Behavior Therapy. New York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alexander F, French TM: Psychoanalytic Therapy. New York, Ronald, 1946Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Garfield SL, Bergin AE: Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change. New York, Wiley, 1978Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frank JD: The present status of outcome studies. J Consult Clin Psychol 47: 310–316, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldfried MR, Merbaum M: Behavior Change through Self-Control. New York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1973Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thoreson CE, Mahoney MJ: Behavioral Self-Control. New York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1974Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goldfried MR: The use of relaxation and cognitive relabeling as coping skills, in Behavioral Self- Management: Strategies, Techniques and Outcomes. Edited by Stuart RB. New York, Brunner/ Mazel, 1977, pp 82–116Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shoemaker J, Tasto D: Effects of muscle relaxation on blood pressure of essential hypertensives. Behav Res Ther 13: 29–43, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Deabler H, Fidel E, Dillenkoffer R, et al.: The use of relaxation and hypnosis in lowering high blood pressure. Am J Clin Hypn 16: 75–83, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cox DJ, Freundlich A, Meyer, RG: Differential effectiveness of an electromyograph feedback, verbal relaxation instructions, and medication placebo with tension headaches. J Consult Clin Psychol 43: 892–898, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Davison GC, Tsujimoto RN, Glaros AG: Attribution and the maintenance of behavior change in falling asleep. J Abnorm Psychol 82: 124–133, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nicassio P, Bootzin R: A comparison of progressive relaxation and autogenic training as treatments for insomnia. J Abnorm Psychol 83: 253–260, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gatchel RJ, Hatch JP, Watson PJ, et al.: Comparative effectiveness of voluntary heart rate control and muscular relaxation as active coping skills for reducing speech anxiety. J Consult Clin Psychol 45: 1093–1100, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goldfried MR, Trier CS: Effectiveness of relaxation as an active coping skill. J Abnorm Psychol 83: 348–355, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chang-Liang R, Denny DR: Applied relaxation as training in self-control. J Counseling Psychol 23: 183–189, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Denny DR, Rupert PA: Desensitization and self-control in the treatment of test anxiety. J Counseling Psychol 4: 272–280, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Snyder AL, Deffenbacher JL: Comparison of relaxation as self-control and systematic desensitization in the treatment of test anxiety. J Consult Clin Psychol 45: 1202–1203, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zeisset RM: Desensitization and relaxation in the modification of psychiatric patients’ interview behavior. J Abnorm Psychol 73: 18–24, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jacobson E: Progressive Relaxation. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1929Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wolpe J: Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1958Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Goldfried MR: Systematic desensitization as training in self-control. J Consult Clin Psychol 37: 228–234, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Meichenbaum DH, Cameron R: Stress inoculation: A skills training approach to anxiety man-agement. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo, Ontario, 1972Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Suinn RM, Richardson F: Anxiety management training: A nonspecific behavior therapy program for anxiety control. Behav Ther 2: 498–510, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Suinn RM: The cardiac stress management program for Type A patients. Cardiac Rehab 5: 13–16, 1975Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Roskies E: Considerations in developing a treatment program for the coronary-prone (Type A) behavior pattern, in Behavioral Medicine: Changing Health Lifestyles. Edited by Davidson P. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1980, pp 299–334Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jenni MA, Wollersheim JP: Cognitive therapy, stress management training and the Type A behavior pattern. Cognitive Ther Res 3: 61–75, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Beck AT: Nature and relation to behavior therapy. Behav Ther 1: 184–200, 1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Beck AT: Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York, International Universities Press, 1976Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lazarus AA: Behavior Therapy and Beyond. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1971Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Meichenbaum DH: Cognitive Behavior Modification: An Integrative Approach. New York, Plenum, 1977Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mahoney MJ: Reflections on the cognitive learning trend in psychotherapy. Am Psychol 32: 5–13, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Goldfried MR, Decenteceo ET, Weinberg L: Systematic rational restructuring as a self-control technique. Behav Ther 5: 247–254, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ellis A: Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. New York, Lyle Stuart, 1962Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Janis I, King BT: The influence of role playing on opinion change. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 49: 211–218, 1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    King BT, Janis IL: Comparison of the effectiveness of improvised versus non-improvised role- playing in producing opinion change. Human Relations 9: 171–186, 1956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Goldfried MR, Linehan MM, Smith JL: The reduction of text anxiety through cognitive restructuring. J Consult Clin Psychol 46: 32–39, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kanter N, Goldfried MR: Relative effectiveness of rational restructuring and self-control desen-sitization in the reduction of interpersonal anxiety. Behav Ther 10: 472–490, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Malkiewich LE, Merluzzi TV: Rational restructuring versus desensitization with clients of diverse conceptual level: A test of a client-treatment matching model. J Counseling Psychol 27: 453–461, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Linehan M, Goldfried MR, Goldfried AP: Assertion training: Skill acquisition or cognitive restructuring. Behav Ther 10: 372–388, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    O’Leary KD, Turkewitz H: Marital therapy from a behavioral perspective, in Marriage and Marital Therapy: Psychoanalytic, Behavioral, and Systems Theory Perspectives. Edited by Paolino TJ, McCrady BS. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1978, pp 240–297Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Haley J: Marriage therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 8: 213–234, 1963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jackson DD: Family rules: Marital quid pro quo. Arch Gen Psychiatry 12: 589–594, 1965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jackson DD, Riskin J, Satir V: A method for analysis of a family interview. Arch Gen Psychiatry 5: 321–337, 1961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Satir V: A Guide to Theory and Technique, rev ed. Palo Alto, Science and Behavior, 1967Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Watzlawick P, Beaven JH, Jackson DD: Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes. New York, Norton, 1967Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gottman JM: Marital Interaction: Experimental Investigations. New York, Academic Press, 1979Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gottman JM, Markman H, Notarius C: The topography of marital conflict: A sequential analysis of verbal and nonverbal behavior. J Marriage Fam 39: 461–477, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Margolin G: A sequential analysis of dyadic communication. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Atlanta, Georgia, December, 1977Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kahn M: Nonverbal communication and marital satisfaction. Fam Process 9: 449–456, 1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gordon T: PET: Parent Effectiveness Training. New York, Wyden, 1970Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jacobson NS, Margolin G: Marital Therapy: Treatment Strategies Based on Social Learning and Behavior Exchange Principles. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1979Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Margolin G, Weiss RL: Contracts, cognition, and change: A behavioral approach to marriage therapy. Counseling Psychol 5: 15–25, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Weiss RL, Hops H, Patterson GR: A framework for conceptualizing marital conflict, a technology for altering it, some data for evaluating it, in Critical Issues in Research and Practice: Proceedings of the Fourth Banff International Conference on Behavioral Modification. Edited by Clark FW, Hamerlynck LA. Champaign, Research, 1973, pp 309–342Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gordon T: TET: Teacher Effectiveness Training. New York, Wyden, 1975Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gordon T: LET: Leader Effectiveness Training. New York, Wyden, 1977Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Laughren TP, Kass DJ: Desensitization of sexual dysfunction: the present status, in Couples in Conflict. Edited by Gurman AS, Rice DG. New York, Ahrenson, 1975, p 285Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wright S, Perreault R, Mathieu M: Treatment of sexual dysfunction: A review. Arch Gen Psychiatry 34: 881–890, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Semans JH: Premature ejaculation. A new approach. Southern Med J 49: 353–357, 1956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sharpe L, Kurlansky JB, O’Conner JF: A preliminary classification of human sexual disorders. J Sex Marital Ther 2: 106–114, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schover LR, Friedman, JM, Weiler SJ: A multi-axial problem-oriented system for the sexual dysfunctions: An alternative to DSM-III. Arch Gen Psychiatry, in pressGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    LoPiccolo J, Steger JC: The sexual interaction inventory: A new instrument for assessment of sexual dysfunction. Arch Sexual Behav 3: 585–595, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Derogatis LR: Psychological assessment of sexual disorders, in Clinical Management of Sexual Disorders. Edited by Meyer J. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1976Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kaplan HS: Hypoactive sexual desire. J Sex Marital Ther 3: 3–9, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Goldstein A: Appropriate expression training: Humanistic behavior therapy, in Humanism and Behaviorism: Dialogue and Growth. Edited by Wandersman A, Poppen PJ, Ricks DF. Elmsford, Pergamon Press, 1976, pp 223–233Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lange AJ, Jakubowski P: Responsible Assertive Behavior: Cognitive/Behavioral Procedures for Trainers. Champaign, Research, 1976Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wolpe J, Lazarus AA: Behavior Therapy Techniques. New York, Pergamon Press, 1966Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    McFall RM: Behavioral training: A skill-acquisition approach to clinical problems, in Behavioral Approaches to Therapy. Edited by Spense JT, Carson RC, Thibault JW. Morristown, General Learning Press, 1976, pp 227–259Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Alden L, Safran J, Weideman R: A comparison of cognitive and skills training strategies in the treatment of unassertive clients. Behav Ther 9: 843–846, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Carmody TP: Rational-emotive, self-instructional, and behavioral assertion training: Facilitating maintenance. Cognitive Ther Res 2: 241–253, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Thorpe GL: Desensitization, behavior rehearsal, self-instructional training and placebo effects on assertive-refusal behavior. Eur J Behav Anal Mod 1: 30–44, 1975Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wolfe JL, Fodor IG: Modifying assertive behavior in women: A comparison of three approaches. Behav Ther 8: 567–574, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bern SL: The measurement of psychological androgyny. J Consult Clin Psychol 42: 155–162, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Spence JT, Helmreich R, Stapp J: Ratings of self and peers on sex-role attributions and their relation to self esteem and conceptions of masculinity and feminity. J Personality Soc Psychol 32: 29–39, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jones WH, Chernovetz ME, Hansson RO: The enigma of androgyny: Differential implications for males and females? J Consult Clin Psychol 2: 298–313, 1978Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bern SL: Sex role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. J Personality Soc Psychol 31: 634–643, 1976Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Bern SL, Lenny E: Sex typing and the avoidance of cross-sex behavior. J Personality Soc Psychol 33: 48–54, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wiggins JS, Holzmuller A: Psychological androgyny and interpersonal behavior. J Consult Clin Psychol 46: 40–52, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Carlson R: Sex differences in ego functioning. J Consult Clin Psychol 37: 367–377, 1971Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    O’Connor K, Mann DW, Bardwick JM: Androgyny and self-esteem in the upper-middle class: A replication of Spence. J Consult Clin Psychol 46: 1168–1169, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kelly JA, O’Brien CG, Hosford RL, et al.: Sex roles and social skills: A behavioral analysis of “masculinity,” “femininity” and “psychological androgyny.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New York, December, 1976Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Antill JK, Cunningham JD: Self-esteem as a function of masculinity in both sexes. J Consult Clin Psychol 47: 783–785, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bennett S: Further implications of masculinity and femininity for psychological well-being in women and men. Presented at the 87th Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York, 1977Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Canter RJ, Meyerwitz B: Sex-role stereotypes: Behavioral investigation. Presented at the 87th Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York, 1979Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    O’Leary VE: Androgynous men: The “best of both worlds?” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, California 1977Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Costrich N, Feinstein J, Kidder L, et al.: When stereotypes hurt: Three studies of penalties for sex-role reversals. J Exper Soc Psychol 11: 520–530, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Deaux K, Traynor J: Evaluation of male and female ability: Bias works two ways. Psychol Rep 32: 261–262, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Feather NT, Simon JG: Reactions to male and female success and failure in sex-linked occupations: Impressions of personality, causal attributions, and perceived likelihood of different consequences. J Personality Soc Psychol 31: 20–31, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jacobson MB, Efferty J: Sex roles and leadership: Perceptions of the leaders and the led. Organization Behav Human Performance 12: 383–396, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Larronce D, Pavelich S, Storer P, et al.: Competence and incompetence: Asymmetric responses to women and men on a sex-linked task. J Personality Soc Psychol Bull 5: 363–367, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Babl JD: Compensatory masculine responding as a function of sex role. J Consult Clin Psychol 47: 252–257, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Winkler RC: What types of sex-role behavior should behavior modifiers promote? J App Behav Anal 10: 549–552, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nordyke NS, Baer DM, Etzel BC, et al.: Implications of the stereotyping and modification of sex role. J App Behav Anal 10: 553–557, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rekers GA, Lovaas OI: Behavioral treatment of deviant sex-role behaviors in a male child. J App Behav Anal 7: 173–190, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gurman AS, Klein MH: Women and behavioral marriage and family therapy: An unconscious male bias? in Contemporary issues in behavior modification with women. Edited by Blechman EA. New York, Guilford Press, in pressGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Whitley BE Jr: Sex roles and psychotherapy: A current appraisal. Psychol Bull 6: 1309–1321, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Baer S, Berger M, Wright L: Even cowboys sing the blues: Difficulties experienced by men trying to adopt nontraditional sex roles and how clinicians can be helpful to them. Sex Roles 5: 191–197, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Birk JM: Relevancy and alliance: Cornerstones in training counselors of men. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, Quebec, September 5, 1980Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Weiss RL: The conceptualization of marriage from a behavioral perspective, in Marriage and Marital Therapy. Edited by Paolino PJ, McCrady BF. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1978, pp 165–239Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Berger M: Men’s new family roles—some implications for therapists. Fam Coordinator 28: 638–646, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tavris C, Offir C: The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective. New York, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1977Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Farrell WT: The Liberated Man. New York, Random House, 1974Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Vanacek FR: Men’s Awareness Training. Unpublished manuscript, 1980Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Horney K: Neurosis and Human Growth. New York, Norton, 1950Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marvin R. Goldfried
    • 1
  • Jerry M. Friedman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyState University of New YorkStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and PsychiatryState University of New YorkStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations