Advertisement

The Older Man

  • Kenneth Solomon

Abstract

In recent years, the plight of the elderly in American society has received in-creasing attention from practitioners of social policy and health care, applied researchers in the field of gerontology, and the public at large. It has included cross-sectional examinations of the biologic, psychologic, and sociologic differences between the aged and young as well as investigations of aging as a longitudinal process. The elderly were first considered a homogeneous group of individuals, defined by age, with similar needs, attributes, and problems. Over time, however, it has become clear that the elderly are quite a heterogenous lot, and are comprised of many different groups with their own special characteristics. The Black elderly have different problems from the White elderly, the poor from the rich, the young-old from the old-old,1 and women from men. Over the last five to ten years in particular, attention has been accorded the special problems of older women, especially widows, and their adaptation.

Keywords

Personality Disorder Nursing Student Premature Ejaculation Dental Student Role Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Neugarten BL: Time, age, and the life cycle. Am J Psychiatry 136: 887–894, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gutmann D: Individual adaptation in the middle years. Developmental issues in the masculine mid-life crisis. J Geriatr Psychiatry 9: 41–77, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gutmann D, Grunes J, Griffin B: The clinical psychology of later life: Developmental para-digms. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Washington, DC, November 29, 1979Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Neugarten BL: Adaptation and the life cycle. Counseling Psychol 6: 16–120, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Neugarten BL, Datan N: The middle years, in American Handbook of Psychiatry, Vol 1, 2nd edition. Edited by Arieti S. New York, Basic Books, 1974, pp 592–608Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Levinson DJ, Darrow CN, Klein EB, et al: The Seasons of a Man’s Life. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1978Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gould R: Transformations. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1978Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sheehey G: Passages. Predictable Crises of Adult Life. New York, Bantam Books, 1977Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tuckman J, Lorge I: “When aging begins” and stereotypes about aging. J Gerontol 8: 489–492, 1953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Powers EA, Grubbs MG: The age identification of older persons: An experience in interviewer- created social reality. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Washington, DC, Nov 29, 1979Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harris L: The Myth and Reality of Aging in America. Washington, National Council on the Aging, 1976Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brotman HB: Facts and Figures on Older Americans No. 5. An Overview—1971. Washington, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1972Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Butler RN: Old age, in American Handbook of Psychiatry, Vol 1, 2nd edition. Edited by Arieti S. New York, Basic Books, 1974, pp 646–661Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harrison J: Warning: The male sex role may be dangerous to your health. J Soc Issues 34: 65–86, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Solomon K: The masculine gender role and its implications for the life expectancy of older men. J Am Geriatrics Soc 29: 297–301, 1981Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nathanson CA: Sex roles as variables in preventive health behavior J Community Health 3: 142–155, 1977Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kimball CP: Psychological aspects of cardiovascular disease, in American Handbook of Psychiatry, Vol IV, 2nd edition. Edited by Reiser MF, New York, Basic Books, 1975, pp 609–617Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chafetz ME, Demone HW Jr: Alcoholism and Society. New York, Oxford University Press, 1972Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weiss JAM: Suicide, in American Handbook of Psychiatry, Vol III, 2nd edition. Edited by Arieti S, Brody EB. New York, Basic Books, 1974, pp 743–765Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gutmann D: The cross-cultural perspective: Notes toward a comparative psychology of aging, in Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. Edited by Birren JE, Schaie KW. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977, pp 302–326Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Keith PM, Brubaker TH: Male household roles in later life: A look at masculinity and marital relationships. Fam Coordinator 28: 497–502, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hubbard RW, Santos JF, Farrow BJ: Age differences in sex role diffusion. A study of middle aged and older adult married couples. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Washington, DC, Nov 29, 1979Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ames LB: Are Rorschach responses influenced by society’s change? J Personality Assess 39: 439–452, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Singer MT: Personality measurements in the aged, in Human Aging: A Biological and Behav ioral Study. Edited by Birren JE, Butler RN, Greenhouse SW, et al. Washington, US Government Printing Office, 1963Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Neugarten BL, Gutmann DL: Age-sex roles and personality in middle age. A thematic apperception study, in Middle Age and Aging. Edited by Neugarten BL. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1968, pp 58–71Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gutmann D: The country of old men: Cross-cultural studies in the psychology of later life, in Occasional Papers in Gerontology, No. 5. Ann Arbor, Institute of Gerontology, 1969Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gutmann DL: Female ego styles and generational conflict, in Feminine Personality and Conflict. Edited by Bardwick JM, Donuvan E, Horner MS, et al. Belmont, Brookes/Cole, 1970Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ryff CD, Baltes PB: Value transition and adult development in women: The instrumentality-terminality sequence hypothesis. Dev Psychol 12: 567–568, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zubin J: Failures of the Rorschach technique. J Projective Techniques 18: 303–315, 1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kahana B: The use of projective techniques in personality assessment of the aged, in the Clinical Psychology of Aging. Edited by Storandt M, Siegler 1С, Elias MF. New York, Plenum, 1978, pp 145–180Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Strong EK: Vocational Interests of Men and Women. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1943Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Douglas K, Arenberg D: Age changes, cohort differences, and cultural change on the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey. J Gerontol 33: 737–747, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Barrows G, Zuckerman M: Construct validity of three masculinity-femininity tests. J Counseling Clin Psychol 34: 1–7, 1976Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lowenthal MF, Thurnher M, Chiraboda D: Four Stages of Life. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 1977Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Foley JM, Murphy DM: Sex role identity in the aged. Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, San Francisco, California, November 20, 1977Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Costa PT Jr, McCrae RR: Cross-sectional differences in masculinity-femininity in adult men. Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, San Francisco, California, November 20, 1977Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jackson DW: Advanced aged adults’ reflection of middle age. Gerontologist 14: 255–1257, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zaks PM, Karuza J Jr., Domurath KL, et al: Sex role orientation across the adult life span. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Washington, DC, November 29, 1979Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goody J: Aging in nonindustrial societies, in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences. Edited by Binstock RH, Shanas E. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976, pp 117–129Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Treas J: Socialist organization and economic development in China. Latent consequences for the aged. Gerontologist 19: 34–43, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Simmons L: The Role of the Aged in Primitive Society. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1945Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sinnott JD: Sex-role inconstancy, biology, and successful aging. A dialectical model. Gerontologist 17: 459–163, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Silverman M: The old man as woman: Detecting stereotypes of aged men with a femininity scale. Perceptual Motor Skills 44: 336–338, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Broverman IK, Broverman DM, Clarkson FE, et al.: Sex-role stereotypes and clinical judgments of mental health. J Consult Clin Psychol 34: 1–7, 1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Solomon K: Psychosocial crises of older men. Presented at the 133rd Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, San Francisco, May 1980Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rosow I: Status and role change through the life span, in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences. Edited by Binstock RH, Shanas E. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976, pp 457–482Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldfarb AI: Clinical perspectives, in Aging in Modern Society. Psychiatric Research Report No. 23. Edited by Simon A, Epstein LJ. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 1968, pp 170–178Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Goldfarb Al: Minor maladjustments of the aged, in American Handbook of Psychiatry, Vol III, 2nd edition. Edited by Arieti S, Brody EB. New York, Basic Books, 1974, pp 820–860Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Solomon K: Personality disorders and the elderly, in Personality Disorders: Diagnosis and Management, 2nd edition. Edited by Lion Jr. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1981, pp 310–338Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Solomon K: The elderly patient, in Clinical Medicine. Edited by Spittell JR Jr. Vol XII, Psychiatry. Hagerstown, Harper and Row, 1981Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Solomon K: Social antecendents of learned helplessness in the health care setting. Gerontolo- gist 22: 282–1287, 1982Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Solomon K: Social antecedents of learned helplessness of the elderly in the health care setting, in Sociological Research Symposium Proceedings (IX). Edited by Lewis EP, Nelson LD, Scully DH, et al. Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1979, pp 188–192Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Parsons T: The Social System. New York, Free Press, 1951, pp 428–473Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wilson RN: The Sociology of Health: An Introduction. New York, Random House, 1970, pp 13–32Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Selye H: The Physiology and Pathology of Exposure to Stress. Montreal, Acta, 1950Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Holmes TH, Rahe RH: The social readjustment rating scale. J Psychosom Res 11: 213–1218, 1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Brandwein C, Postoff R, Steinberg T: The “married widow(er):” A new role. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Washington, DC, November 28, 1979Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Scheff TJ: Schizophrenia as ideology. Schizophrenia Bull No 2: 15–19, 1970Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zusman J: Some explanations of the changing appearance of psychotic patients. Antecedents of the social breakdown syndrome concept. Milbank Mem Fund Quart 44 (Supplement): 363–394, 1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ryan W: Blaming the Victim, revised edition. New York, Vintage Books, 1976Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brody EB: Psychosocial aspects of prejudice, in American Handbook of Psychiatry, Vol II, 2nd edition. Edited by Caplan G. New York, Basic Books, 1974, pp 492–511Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tuckman J, Lorge I: Attitudes toward old people. J Soc Psychol 37: 249–1260, 1953Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Butler RN: Why Survive? Being Old in America. New York, Harper and Row, 1975, pp 174–1259Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Solomon K, Vickers R: Attitudes of health workers toward old people, J Am Geriatrics Soc 27: 186–191, 1979Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Solomon K: The depressed patient: Social antecedents of psychopathologic changes in the elderly. J Am Geriatrics Soc, 29: 14–18, 1981Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Friedmann EA, Orbach HL: Adjustment to retirement, in American Handbook of Psychiatry, Vol I, 2nd edition. Edited by Arieti S. New York, Basic Books, 1974, pp 609–645Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sheppard HL: Work and retirement, in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences. Edited by Binstock RM, Shanas E. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976, pp 286–309Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Palmore E: Predictors of successful aging. Gerontologist 19: 427–431, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    David DS, Brannon R: The male sex role: Our culture’s blueprint of manhood and what it’s done for us lately, in The Forty-Nine Percent Majority: The Male Sex Role. Edited by David DS, Brannon R. Reading, Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley, 1976. pp 1–45Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lein L: Male participation in home life: Impact of social supports and breadwinner responsibility on the allocation of tasks. Fam Coordinator 28: 489–495, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bibring E: The mechanism of depression, in Affective Disorders. Edited by Greenacre P. New York, International Universities Press, 1965, pp 13–48Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kay DWK: The epidemiology and identification of brain deficit in the elderly, in Cognitive and Emotional Disturbance in the Elderly. Edited by Eisdorfer C, Freidel RO. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1977, pp 11–126Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Seligman MEP: Helplessness. San Francisco, WH Freeman, 1975Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Maier SF, Seligman MEP: Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence. J. Exp Psychol: General 105: 3–46, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Engel GL: A psychological setting of somatic disease: The “giving up-given up” complex. Proc R Soc Med 60: 553–555, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Solomon K: The development of stereotypes of the elderly: Toward a unified hypothesis. Presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Dallas, Texas, November 19, 1978Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Solomon K: The development of stereotypes of the elderly: Toward a unified hypothesis, in Sociological Research Symposium Proceedings (IX). Edited by Lewis EP, Nelson LD, Scully DH, et al. Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1979, pp 172–177Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Solomon K: Social antecedents of depression in the elderly: The relationship between societal structure and stereotyping. Presented at the 133rd Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, San Francisco, California, May 5, 1980Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Becker E: The Revolution in Psychiatry, London, Free Press of Glencoe, 1964Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Durkheim E: Suicide ( 1897 ). New York, Free Press, 1951Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Akiskal HS, McKinney WT Jr: Depressive disorders: Toward a unified hypothesis. Science 182: 20–129, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Akiskal HS, McKinney WT Jr: Overview of recent research in depression. Integration of ten conceptual models into a comprehensive clinical frame. Arch Gen Psychiatry 32: 285–305, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Abraham K: Notes on the psychoanalytic investigation and treatment of manic-depressive insanity and allied conditions (1911), in Selected Papers on Psychoanalysis. New York, Basic Books, 1960, pp 137–156Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Freud S: Mourning and melancholia (1917), in Collected Papers, Vol IV. London, Hogarth Press, 1934, pp 152–170Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wolff CT: Loss, grief, and mourning in adults, in Understanding Human Behavior in Health and Illness. Edited by Simons RC, Pardes H. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1977, pp 378–386Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Masters WH, Johnson VE: Human Sexual Response, Boston, Little Brown, 1966, pp 223–1270Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pfeiffer E: Sexuality in the aging individual. J Am Geriatrics Soc 22: 481–484, 1974Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Masters WH, Johnson VE: Human Sexual Inadequacy. Boston, Little Brown, 1970, pp 57–60Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shader RI: Endocrine, metabolic, and genitourinary effects of psychotropic drugs, in Clinical Handbook of Psychopharmacology. Edited by DiMascio A, Shader RI. New York, Science House, 1970, pp 205–1212Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kalinowsky LB, Hippius H: Pharmacological, Convulsive and other Somatic Treatments in Psychiatry. New York, Grune and Stratton, 1968, pp 69–70, 136, 149Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bern SL: Sex-role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. J Personality Soc Psychol 31: 634–643, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Spence JT, Helmreich R, Stapp J: Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relation to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity. J Personality Soc Psychol 32: 29–39, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    O’Connor K, Mann DW, Bardwick JM: Androgyny and self-esteem in the upper middle class: A replication of Spence. J Consult Clin Psychol 46: 1168–1169, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gillett N, Levitt M, Antonucci T: The relationship between masculinity, femininity and social competence in three generations of women. Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, San Francisco, California, November 20, 1977Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cherry DL, Zarit SH: Sex-role and age differences in competency, flexibility and affective status of women. Presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Dallas, Texas, November 18, 1978Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    LeShan L, LeShan E: Psychiatry and the patient with a limited life span. Psychiatry 24: 318–323, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Weinberg J: Time, age, and timelessness. Am J Psychiatry 135: 893–899, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Beck AT: The Diagnosis and Management of Depression. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1973Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kay DWK, Cooper AF, Garside RF, et al.: The differentiation of paranoid from affective psychoses by patient’s premorbid characteristics. Brit J Psychiatry 129: 207–1215, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Solomon K: Haloperidol and the geriatric patient: Practical considerations, in Haloperidol Update: 1958–1980. Edited by Ayd FJ Jr. Baltimore, Ayd Medical Communications, 1980, pp 155–173Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Snyder SH, Yamamura HI: Antidepressants and the muscarine acetylcholine receptor. Arch Gen Psychiatry 34: 236–1239, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    U’Prichard DC, Greenberg DA, Sheehan PP, et al.: Tricyclic antidepressants: Therapeutic properties and affinity for noradrenergic receptor binding sites in the brain. Science 199: 197–198, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Jefferson JW: A review of the cardiovascular effects and toxiticy of tricyclic antidepressants. Psychosom Med 37: 160–179, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kantor SJ, Glassman AH, Bigger JJ Jr, et al: The cardiac effects of therapeutic plasma concentrations of imipramine. Am J Psychiatry 135: 534–538, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Solomon K: Benzodiazepines and neurotic anxiety. Critique. NYS J Med 76: 2156–12164, 1976Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Solomon K, Hart R: Pitfalls and prospects in clinical research on antianxiety drugs: Benzodiazepines and placebo. A research review. J Clin Psychiatry 39: 823–831, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jacobson E: Progressive Relaxation. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1938Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wolpe J: The Practice of Behavior Therapy. New York, Pergamon Press, 1969Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bing E. Six Practical Lessons for an Easier Childbirth. New York, Bantam, 1969, pp 36–52Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shaefer HH, Martin PL: Behavioral Therapy. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1969Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bibring E: Psychoanalysis and the dynamic psychotherapies. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2: 745–770, 1954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Butler RN: Successful aging and the role of life review. J Am Geriatrics Soc 12: 529–532, 1974Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Olin HS: Psychotherapy of the chronically suicidal patient. Am J Psychother 30: 570–575, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Verwoerdt A: Clinical Geropsychiatry. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1976, pp 60–64Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sparacino J: Individual psychotherapy with the aged: A selective review. Int J Aging Human Dev 9: 197–1220, 1978–1979Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Knight B: Psychotherapy and behavior change with the noninstitutionalized aged. Int J Aging Human Dev 9: 221–1236, 1978–1979Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Menninger K: Theory of Psychoanalytic Technique. New York, Harper and Row, 1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kahana RJ: Psychoanalysis in late life. Discussion. J Geriatric Psychiat 11: 37–49, 1978Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Solomon K: Therapeutic approaches to changing masculine role behavior. Am J Psychoanal 41: 31–38, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Peck A: Pscyhotherapy of the aged. J Am Geriatrics Soc 14: 748–753, 1966Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Perls F: Gestalt Therapy Verbatim. Lafayette, Real People Press, 1969Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Maxwell J, Falzett B: OK Childing and Parenting. El Paso, Transactional Institute of El Paso, 1974Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Goldfarb Al: Group therapy with the old and aged, in Comprehensive Group Therapy. Edited by Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1971, pp 623–642Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Woods SM: Some dynamics of male chauvinism. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 63–65 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Solomon K: Sex roles and group therapy droupouts. Am J Psychiatry 136: 727–728, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Solomon K: The geropsychiatrist and the delivery of mental health services in the community. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Geronotological Society, Washington, DC, November 26, 1979Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rosenkranz HA, McNevin TE: A factor analysis of attitudes toward the aged. Gerontologist 9: 55–59, 1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ivester C, King K: Attitudes of adolescents toward the aged. Gerontologist 17: 85–89, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Thorson J A, Whatley L, Hancock K: Attitudes toward the aged as a function of age and education. Gerontologist 14: 316–318, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Thorson JA: Attitudes toward the aged as a function of race and social class. Gerontologist 15: 343–349, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kastenbaum R: The reluctant therapist. Geriatrics 18: 296–301, 1963Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Garfinkel R: The reluctant therapist 1975. Gerontologist 15: 136–137, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Dye CA: Attitude change among professionals. Implications for gerontological nursing. J Gerontol Nurs 5: 31–35, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tuckman J, Lorge I: Attitude toward aging of individuals with experience with the aged. J Genetic Psychol 92: 199–1204, 1958Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Arnhoff FN, Lorge I: Stereotypes about aging and the aged. School Soc 88: 70–71, 1960Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    McGuinness AF, Knox SJ: Attitudes to psychogeriatric nursing. Nurs Times 64 (Supplement): 127–128, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Spence DJ, Feigenbaum EM, Fitzgerald F, et al.: Medical students attitudes toward the geriatric patient. J Am Geriatrics Soc 16: 976–983, 1968Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Mills J: Attitudes of undergraduate students concerning geriatric patients. Am J Occup Therapy 26: 200–1203, 1972Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Cyrus-Lutz C, Gaitz CM: Psychiatrists’ attitudes toward the aged and aging. Gerontologist 12: 163–167, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    York J, Fergus E, Calsyn R: The implications of staff attitudes for a nursing home mental health training program. Presented at the 28th Annual Meeing of the Gerontological Society, Louisville, Kentucky, October 28, 1975Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Mc Connell SR: The effects of organizational context on service providers’ attitudes toward old people. Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, San Francisco, California, November 20, 1977Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Hickey T, Rakowski W, Hultsch DF, et al: Attitudes toward aging as a function of in-service training and practitioner age. J Gerontol 31: 681–686, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kayser JS, Minningerode FA: Increasing nursing students’ interest in working with aged patients. Nurs Res 24: 23–126, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Johnson DM, Wilhite MJ: Changes in nursing students’ stereotypic attitudes toward old people. Nurs Res 25: 430–432, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Robb SS: Attitudes and intentions of baccalaureate nursing students toward the elderly. Nurs Res 28: 43–50, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Romaniuk M, Hoyer FW, Romaniuk J: Helpless self-attitudes of the elderly. The effect of patronizing statements. Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, San Francisco, California, November 20, 1977Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Montgomery D, Wilkinson A: Intervention in the organizational environment: Correcting the mismatch between staff attitudes and agencies’ activités. Presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Dallas, Texas, November 20, 1978Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Brennan SJ, Moravec JD: Assessing multidisciplinary continuing education as it impacts on knowledge, attitudes and behavior in caring for the elderly. Presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Dallas, Texas, November 19, 1978Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Holtzman JM, Beck JD: The impact of medical and dental education on student’s attitudes toward the aged. Presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Dallas, Texas, November 19, 1978Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Holtzman JM, Beck JD: Palmore’s Facts on Aging Quiz: A reappraisal. Gerontologist 19: 116–120, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Beck JD, Ettinger RL, Glenn RE, et al.: Oral health status: Impact on dental student attitudes toward the aged. Gerontologist 19: 580–584, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Ettinger RL, Beck J, Kerber P, et al.: Dental student confidence in prosthodontics and attitudes toward the elderly. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Washington, DC, November 28, 1979Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Farrar DR, Miller RH: Professional age related attitudinal conflicts of social workers and lawyers. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Washington, DC, November 28, 1979Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ford CV, Sbordone RJ: Attitudes of psychiatrists toward elderly patients. Am J Psychiatry 137: 571–575, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Solomon K, Vickers R: Stereotyping the elderly: Changing the attitudes of clinicians. Presented at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, San Diego, California, November 25, 1980Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Kjervik DK, Palta M: Sex-role stereotyping in assessments of mental health made by psychiatric-mental health nurses. Nurs Res 27: 166–171, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Dreman SB: Sex-role stereotyping in mental health standards in Israel. J Clin Psychol 34: 961–966, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth Solomon
    • 1
  1. 1.Levindale Hebrew Geriatric Center and HospitalBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations