Radioenzymatic Analyses

  • Stephen R. Philips


Since the late 1960s, radioenzymatic assays have been developed for many of the neurotransmitters and, in some cases, for some of their precursors and metabolites. These techniques have largely replaced the less sensitive and less specific spectrofluorometric and bioassay procedures used previously and now provide one of the more commonly used means to measure picogram amounts of these substances in very small volumes of body fluids, in individual nuclei taken from specific brain regions, and, in some cases, in large individual cells of some simple animals. This chapter reviews the development of radioenzymatic assays for substances commonly believed to act as neurotransmitters in the CNS, for their associated precursors and metabolites, and for some of the compounds, notably the trace amines, which may also play a role in neurotransmission. In addition, applications of these techniques to transmitter determinations in very small quantities of biological specimens and, in some cases, in single cells are discussed.


Isoamyl Alcohol Methyl Donor Taurocholic Acid Dopa Decarboxylase Choline Kinase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Saelens, J. K., Schoen, M. S., and Kovacsics, G. B., 1967, Biochem. Pharmacol. 16:1043–1049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Axelrod, J., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237:1657–1660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kovacsics, G. B., and Saelens, J. K., 1968, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 174:481–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Iversen, L. L., and Jarrott, B., 1970, Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:1841–1843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cuello, A. C., Horn, A. S., Mackay, A. V. P., and Iversen, L. L., 1973, Nature 243:465–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Henry, D. P., Starman, B. J., Johnson, D. G., and Williams, R. H., 1975, Life Sci. 16:375–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Petty, M. A., and Reid, J. L., 1977, Brain Res. 136:376–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lake, C. R., Ziegler, M. G., and Kopin, I. J., 1976, Life Sci. 18:1315–1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Falke, H. E., Punt, R., and Birkenhager, W. H., 1978, Clin. Chim. Acta 89:111–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ziegler, M. G., Lake, C. R., and Ebert, M. H., 1979, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 57:127–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Engelman, K., Portnoy, B., and Lovenberg, W., 1968, Am. J. Med. Sci. 255:259–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Engelman, K., and Portnoy, B., 1970, Circ. Res. 26:53–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nikodijevic, B., Daly, J., and Creveling, C. R., 1969, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18:1577–1584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Passon, P. G., and Peuler, J. D., 1973, Anal. Biochem. 51:618–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cryer, P. E., Santiago, J. V., and Shah, S., 1974, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 39:1025–1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hortnagl, H., Benedict, C. R., Grahame-Smith, D. G., and McGrath, B., 1977, Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 4:553–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Coyle, J. T., and Henry, D., 1973. J. Neurochem. 21:61–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Iversen, L. L., 1967, The Uptake and Storage of Noradrenaline in Sympathetic Nerves, Cambridge University Press, London, New York, p. 33.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Palkovits, M., Brownstein, M., Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., 1974, Brain Res. 77:137–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brownstein, M., Saavedra, J. M., and Palkovits, M., 1974, Brain Res. 79:431–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Coyle, J. T., and Kuhar, M. J., 1974, Brain Res. 65:475–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cruce, J. A. F., Thoa, N. B., and Jacobowitz, D. M., 1978, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 8:287–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kizer, J. S., Palkovits, M., and Brownstein, M. J., 1976, Brain Res. 108:363–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arnold, E. B., Molinoff, P. B., and Rutledge, C. O., 1977, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 202:544–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kant, G. J., and Meyerhoff, J. L., 1978, Life Sci. 23:2111–2118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cotman, C. W., Haycock, J. W., and White, W. F., 1976, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 254:475–505.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Patrick, R. L., and Barchas, J. D., 1976, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 197:89–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bartholini, G., 1976, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 28:429–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cuello, A. C., Hiley, R., and Iversen, L. L., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21:1337–1340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Robertson, H. A., 1976, Experientia 32:552–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bird, E. D., Spokes, E. G. S., and Iversen, L. L., 1979, Brain 102:347–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Van der Gugten, J., Palkovits, M., Wijnen, H. L. J. M., and Versteeg, D. H. G., 1976, Brain Res. 107:171–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Versteeg, D. H. G., Van der Gugten, J., deJong, W., and Palkovits, M., 1976, Brain Res. 113:563–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Weise, V. K., and Kopin, I. J., 1976, Life Sc.. 19:1673–1686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    De Champlain, J., Farley, L., Cousineau, D., and van Ameringen, M.-R., 1976, Circ. Res. 38:109–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Peuler, J. D., and Johnson, G. A., 1977, Life Sci. 21:625–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ben-Jonathan, N., and Porter, J. C., 1976, Endocrinology 98:1497–1507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reader, T. A., De Champlain, J., and Jasper, H., 1976, Brain Res. 111:95–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chiueh, C. C., and Kopin, I. J., 1978, J. Neurochem. 31:561–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gauchy, C., Tassin, J. P., Glowinski, J., and Cheramy, A., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:471–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gudelsky, G. A., and Porter, J. C., 1979, Life Sci. 25:1697–1702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pilotte, N. S., Gudelsky, G. A., and Porter, J. C., 1980, Brain Res. 193:284–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nansel, D. D., Gudelsky, G. A., and Porter, J. C., 1979, Endocrinology 105:1073–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nesterick, C. A., and Rahwan, R. G., 1979, J. Chromatogr. 164:205–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    DaPrada, M., and Zurcher, G., 1976, Life Sci. 19:1161–1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saavedra, J. M., Kvetnansky, R., and Kopin, I. J., 1979, Brain Res. 160:271–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Umezu, K., and Moore, K. E., 1979, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 208:49–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Paul, S. M., Axelrod, J., Saavedra, J. M., and Skolnick, P., 1979, Brain Res. 178:499–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Perlow, M. J., Chiueh, C. C., Lake, C. R., and Wyatt, R. J., 1980, Brain Res. 186:469–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scatton, B., Pelayo, F., Dubocovich, M. L., Langer, S. Z., and Bartholini, G., 1979, Brain Res. 176:197–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Negro-Vilar, A., Ojeda, S. R., Advis, J. P., and McCann, S. M., 1979, Endocrinology 105:86–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Head, R. J., and Berkowitz, B. A., 1979, Blood Vessels 16:320–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Endert, E., 1979, Clin. Chim. Acta 96:233–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Harapat, S., and Rubin, P., 1979, J. Chromatogr. 163:77–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Klaniecki, T. S., Corder, C. N., McDonald, R. H., and Feldman, J. A., 1977, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 90:604–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fujiwara, M., Inagaki, C., Miwa, S., Takaori, S., Saeki, Y., and Nozaki, M., 1980, Life Sci. 26:71–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Saller, C. F., and Zigmond, M. J., 1978, Life Sci. 23:1117–1130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Weinshilboum, R. M., and Raymond, F. A., 1976, Biochem. Pharmacol. 25:573–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fry, J. P., House, C. R., and Sharman, D. F., 1974, Br. J. Pharmacol. 51:116–117P.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Martin, I. L., Baker, G. B., and Fleetwood-Walker, S. M., 1978, Biochem. Pharmacol. 27:1519–1520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    McCaman, M. W., Ono, J. K., and McCaman, R. E., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:1111–1113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    McCaman, M. W., McCaman, R. E., and Stetzier, J., 1979, Anal. Biochem. 96:175–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Philips, S. R., and Robson, A. M., (unpublished data).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Philips, S. R., Robson, A. M., and Boulton, A. A., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38:1106–1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hefti, F., and Lichtensteiger, W., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27:647–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Johnson, G. A., Gren, J. M., and Kupiecki, R., 1978, Clin. Chem. 24:1927–1930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Johnson, G. A., Baker, C. A., and Smith, R. T., 1980, Life Sci. 26:1591–1598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zurcher, G., and Da Prada, M., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33:631–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vlachakis, N. D., and DeQuattro, V., 1978, Biochem. Med. 20:107–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Vlachakis, N. D., and Niarchos, A., 1979, Clin. Chim. Acta 99:283–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kobayashi, K., DeQuattro, V., Kolloch, R., and Miano, L., 1980, Life Sci. 26:567–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Vlachakis, N. D., Alexander, N., and Maronde, R. F., 1980, Life Sci. 26:97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sato, T., and DeQuattro, V., 1969, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 74:672–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Vlachakis, N. D., Alexander, N., Velasquez, M. T., and Maronde, R. F., 1979, Biochem. Med. 22:323–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Comoy, E., and Bohuon, C., 1972, Clin. Chim. Acta 36:207–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Argiolas, A., Fadda, F., Stefanini, E., and Gessa, G. L., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:599–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kebabian, J. W., Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:795–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Annunziato, L., and Weiner, R. I., 1980, Neuroendocrinology 31:8–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Argiolas, A., and Fadda, F., 1978, Experientia 34:739–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fekete, M. I. K., Kanyicska, B., and Herman, J. P., 1978, Life Sci. 23:1549–1556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fekete, M. I. K., Szentendrei, T., Herman, J. P., and Kanyicska, B., 1980, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 64:231–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Saavedra, J. M., Brownstein, M., and Axelrod, J., 1973, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 186:508–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Neuhoff, V., and Weise, M., 1970, Arzneim. Forsch. 20:368–372.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Weissbach, H., Redfield, B. G., and Axelrod, J., 1961, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 54:190–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Axelrod, J., and Weissbach, H., 1961, J. Biol. Chem. 236:211–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Saavedra, J. M., Palkovits, M., Brownstein, M. J., and Axelrod, J., 1974, Brain Res. 77:157–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Van de Kar, L., Levine, J., and Van Orden L. S. III, 1978, Neuroendocrinology 27:186–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Palkovits, M., Brownstein, M., and Saavedra, J. M., 1974, Brain Res. 80:237–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Saavedra, J. M., Brownstein, M., and Palkovits, M., 1974, Brain Res. 79:437–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Massari, V. J., Tizabi, Y., Gottesfeld, Z., and Jacobowitz, D. M., 1978, Neuroscience 3:339–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Palkovits, M., Saavedra, J. M., Jacobowitz, D. M., Kizer, J. S., Zaborszky, L., and Brownstein, M. J., 1977, Brain Res. 130:121–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Reader, T. A., 1980, Brain Res. Bull. 5:609–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Brownstein, M. J., Saavedra, J. M., Axelrod, J., Zeman, G. H., and Carpenter, D. O., 1974, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71:4662–4665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Boireau, A., Ternaux, J. P., Bourgoin, S., Hery, F., Glowinski, J., and Hamon, M., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:201–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Oliveras, J. L., Bourgoin, S., Hery, F., Besson, J. M., and Hamon, M., 1977, Brain Res. 138:393–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gaudin-Chazal, G., Daszuta, A., Faudon, M., and Ternaux, J. P., 1979, Brain Res. 160:281–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ternaux, J. P., Boireau, A., Bourgoin, S., Hamon, M., Hery, F., and Glowinski, J., 1976, Brain Res. 101:533–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ternaux, J. P., Hery, F., Hamon, M., Bourgoin, S., and Glowinski, J., 1977, Brain Res. 132:575–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Elks, M. L., Youngblood, W. W., and Kizer, J. S., 1979, Brain Res. 172:471–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Reinhard, J. F., Ozaki, Y., and Moskowitz, M. A., 1980, Biochem. Pharmacol. 29:3020–3023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hammel, I., Naot, Y., Ben-David, E., and Ginsburg, H., 1978, Anal. Biochem. 90:840–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Feigenson, M. E., and Saelens, J. K., 1969, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18:1479–1486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Smith, J. C., and Saelens, J. K., 1967, Fed. Proc. 26:296.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Saelens, J. K., Allen, M. P., and Simke, J. P., 1970, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 186:279–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Consolo, S., Garattini, S., Ladinsky, H., and Thoenen, H., 1972, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 220:639–646.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Toru, M., and Aprison, M. H., 1966, J. Neurochem. 13:1533–1544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ladinsky, H., Consolo, S., and Bareggi, S. R., 1972, Anal. Biochem. 50:460–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Reid, W. D., Haubrich, D. R., and Krishna, G., 1971, Anal. Biochem. 42:390–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Haubrich, D. R., Reid, W. D., and Gillette, J. R., 1972, Nature (New Biol.) 238:88–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dunant, Y., and Hirt, L., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:657–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Dunant, Y., Eder, L., and Servetiadis-Hirt, L., 1980, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 298:185–203.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Goldberg, A. M., and McCaman, R. E., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    McCaman, R. E., Weinreich, D., and Borys, H., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21:473–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Richter, J. A., and Shea, P. A., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23:1225–1230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Waldenlind, L., 1975, Biochem. Pharmacol. 24:1339–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wonnacott, S., and Marchbanks, R. M., 1975, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 3:102–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hildebrand, J. G., Townsel, J. G., and Kravitz, E. A., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23:951–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Richter, J. A., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:791–797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Dudar, J. D., Whishaw, I. Q., and Szerb, J. C., 1979, Neuropharmacology, 18:673–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Shea, P. A., and Aprison, M. H., 1973, Fed. Proc. 32:430.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shea, P. A., and Aprison, M. H., 1973, Anal. Biochem. 56:165–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Shea, P. A., and Aprison, M. H., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Smith, J. E., Lane, J. D., Shea, P. A., McBride, W. J., and Aprison, M. H., 1975, Anal. Biochem. 64:149–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Massarelli, R., Durkin, T., Niedergang, C., and Mandel, P., 1976, Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 8:407–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Eckernas, S.-A., and Aquilonius, S.-M., 1977, Acta Physiol. Scand. 100:446–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    McCaman, R. E., and Stetzler, J., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:669–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jacobowitz, D. M., and Goldberg, A. M., 1977, Brain Res. 122:575–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Vocci, F. J., Karbowski, M. J., and Dewey, W. L., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:1417–1422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Green, J. P., 1970, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 4 (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 221–250.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Snyder, S. H., Baldessarini, R. J., and Axelrod, J., 1966, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 153:544–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Taylor, K. M., and Snyder, S. H., 1971, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 179:619–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kuhar, M. J., Taylor, K. M., and Snyder, S. H., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18:1515–1527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Taylor, K. M., and Snyder, S. H., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19:341–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Miller, R. L., McCord, C., Sanda, M., Bourne, H. R., and Melmon, K. L., 1970, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 175:228–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Charles, T. J., Williams, S. J., Seaton, A., Bruce, C., and Taylor, W. H., 1979, Clin. Sci. 57:39–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Beaven, M. A., Jacobsen, S., and Horakova, Z., 1972, Clin. Chim. Acta 37:91–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hough, L. B., and Domino, E. F., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hough, L. B., and Domino, E. F., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:1865–1866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Dent, C., Nilam, F., and Smith, I. R., 1979, Agents Actions 9:34–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kobayashi, Y., and Maudsley, D. V., 1972, Anal. Biochem. 46:85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Blumenthal, M. N., Roitman, B., Carlson, G., and Fish, L., 1974, Biochem. Med. 11:312–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Taylor, K. M., and Snyder, S. H., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19:1343–1358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lipinski, J. F., Schaumburg, H. H., and Baldessarini, R. J., 1973, Brain Res. 52:403–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Levy, D. A., and Widra, M., 1973, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 81:291–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Dismukes, K., and Snyder, S. H., 1974, Brain Res. 78:467–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Brownstein, M. J., Saavedra, J. M., Palkovits, M., and Axelrod, J., 1974, Brain Res. 77:151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Taylor, K. M., and Snyder, S. H., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21:1215–1223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Weinreich, D., Weiner, C., and McCaman, R., 1975, Brain Res. 84:341–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Subramanian, N., Mitznegg, P., and Domschke, W., 1978, Acta Hepatogastroenterol. (Stuttg.) 25:456–458.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Taylor, K. M., Krilis, S., and Baldo, B. A., 1980, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 61:19–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Salberg, D. J., Hough, L. B., Kaplan, D. E., and Domino, E. F., 1977, Life Sci. 21:1439–1446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Shaff, R. E., and Beaven, M. A., 1979, Anal. Biochem. 94:425–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Subramanian, N., Schinzel, W., Mitznegg, P., and Estler, C.-J., 1978, Agents Actions 8:488–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Orr, E. L., and Eichelman, B., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33:303–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Erspamer, V., 1948, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. (Kbh.) 4:224–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Erspamer, V., 1952, Nature 169:375–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Robertson, H. A., and Juorio, A. V., 1976, Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 19:173–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Molinoff, P., and Axelrod, J., 1969, Science 164:428–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Molinoff, P. B., Landsberg, L., and Axelrod, J., 1969, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 170:253–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Molinoff, P. B., and Axelrod, J., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19:157–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Jaim-Etcheverry, G., and Zieher, L. M., 1975, J. Neurochem. 25:915–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Walker, R. J., Ramage, A. G., and Woodruff, G. N., 1972, Experientia 28:1173–1174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Barker, D. L., Molinoff, P. B., and Kravitz, E. A., 1972, Nature (New Biol.) 236:61–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Wallace, B. G., Talamo, B. R., Evans, P. D., and Kravitz, E. A., 1974, Brain Res. 74:349–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Juorio, A. V., and Molinoff, P. B., 1971, Br. J. Pharmacol. 43:438–439P.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Juorio, A. V., and Molinoff, P. B., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:271–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Robertson, H. A., and Steele, J. E., 1974, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 237:34–35P.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lam, K. C., Tall, A. R., Goldstein, G. B., and Mistilis, S. P., 1973, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 8:465–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Rossi-Fanelli, F., Cangiano, C., Attili, A., Angelico, M., Cascino, A., Capocaccia, L., Strom, R., and Crifo, C., 1976, Clin. Chim. Acta 67:255–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kinniburgh, D. W., and Boyd, N. D., 1979, Clin. Biochem. 12:27–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Saavedra, J. M., 1974, Anal. Biochem. 59:628–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Robertson, H. A., 1975, Experientia 31:1006–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Robertson, H. A., 1976, Experientia 32:552–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., 1973, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70:769–772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Saavedra, J. M., Coyle, J. T., and Axelrod, J., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23:511–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Danielson, T. J., Boulton, A. A., and Robertson, H. A., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:1131–1135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Saavedra, J. M., Ribas, J., Swann, J., and Carpenter, D. O., 1977, Science 195:1004–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    McCaman, M. W., and McCaman, R. E., 1978, Brain Res. 141:347–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Farnham, P. J., Novak, R. A., and McAdoo, D. J., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:1173–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Saavedra, J. M., Brownstein, M. J., Carpenter, D. O., and Axelrod, J., 1974, Science 185:364–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Buck, S. H., Murphy, R. C., and Molinoff, P. B., 1977, Brain Res. 122:281–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Evans, P. D., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:1009–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Harmar, A. J., and Horn, A. S., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:987–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    David, J.-C., 1979, Experientia 35:1483–1484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Robertson, H. A., David, J.-C., and Danielson, T. J., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:1137–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Boulton, A. A., 1976, Trace Amines and the Brain (E. Usdin, and M. Sandler, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 21–39.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Saavedra, J. M., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:211–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Durden, D. A., Philips, S. R., and Boulton, A. A., 1973, Can. J. Biochem. 51:995–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Willner, J., LeFevre, H. F., and Costa, E., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23:857–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Tallman, J. F., Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27:465–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Tallman, J. F., Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., 1916 J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 199:216–221.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Philips, S. R., Durden, D. A., and Boulton, A. A., 1974, Can. J. Biochem. 52:366–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., 1972, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 182:363–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., 1973, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 185:523–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Philips, S. R., Durden, D. A., and Boulton, A. A., 1974, Can. J. Biochem. 52:447–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Warsh, J. J., Coscina, D. V., Godse, D. D., and Chan, P. W., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:1191–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Mandel, P., Pasantes-Morales, H., and Urban, P. F., 1976, Transmitters in the Visual Process (S. L. Bonting, ed.), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 89–104.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Lombardini, J. B., 1975, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 193:301–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Abdelal, A. T., and Ingraham, J. L., 1975, Anal. Biochem. 69:652–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kalb, V. F., Donohue, T. J., Corrigan, M. G., and Bernlohr, R. W., 1978, Anal. Biochem. 90:47–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Philips, S. R., 1981, Advances in Cellular Neurobiology (S. Fedoroff and L. Hertz, eds.), Vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, pp. 355–391.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen R. Philips
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychiatric Research DivisionUniversity HospitalSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations