Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Some Neurotransmitters and Their Precursors and Metabolites

  • David A. Durden
  • Alan A. Boulton


During the past decade, mass spectrometry (MS) has been applied to the identification and quantitation of several neurotransmitter substances and their precursors and metabolites in a variety of nervous and other tissues and in complex body fluids such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), whole blood, and plasma. It is a very sensitive and relatively specific procedure and frequently is used in conjunction with a suitable separative method such as gas (GC), thin-layer (TLC), or liquid chromatography (LC). These chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods vie in sensitivity with other analytical procedures such as fluorimetry, radioimmunologic assays, and radioenzymatic assays; in general, however, they provide a much greater specificity.


Electron Impact Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis EtOAc Extraction Field Desorption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ryhage, R., 1964, Anal. Chem. 36:759–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Watson, J. T., and Biemann, K., 1964, Anal. Chem. 36:1135–1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hammar, C. G., Hanin, I., Holmstedt, B., Kitz, R. J., Jenden, D. J., and Karlen, B., 1968, Nature 220:915–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Angaard, E., and Sedvall, G., 1969, Anal. Chem. 41:1250–1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boulton, A. A., Pollit, R. J., and Majer, J. M., 1967, Nature 215:132–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Watson, J. T., Falkner, F. C., and Sweetman, B. J., 1974, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 1:156–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sweeley, C. C., Elliott, W. H., Fries, I., and Ryhage, R., 1966, Anal. Chem. 38:1549–1552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Durden, D. A., and Boulton, A. A., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36:129–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mita, H., Yasueda, H., and Shida, T., 1980, J. Chromatogr. 181:153–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Durden, D. A., 1978, Res. Methods Neurochem. 4:205–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Durden, D. A., and Boulton, A. A., 1979, Tech. Life Sci. B214:1–25.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jacob, K., Vogt, W., Knedel, M., and Schwertfeger, G., 1978, J. Chromatogr. 146:221–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Creveling, C. R., Kondo, K., and Daly, J. W., 1968, Clin. Chem. 14:302–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Seiler, N., Schneider, H., and Sonnenberg, K.-D., 1970, Z. Anal. Chem. 252:127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chapman, D. I., Chapman, J. R., and Clark, J., 1972, Int. J. Biochem. 3:66–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Knoche, H., Alfes, H., Mollmann, H., and Reisch, J., 1969, Experientia 25:515–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Juorio, A. V., and Durden, D. A., 1977, Can. J. Biochem. 55:761–765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lehmann, W. D., Beckey, H. D., and Schulten, H.-R., 1976, Anal. Chem. 48:1572–1575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koslow, S. H., Cattabeni, F., and Costa, E., 1972, Science 176:177–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Koslow, S. H., and Schlumpf, M., 1974, Nature 251:530–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Karoum, F., Cattabeni, F., Costa, E., Ruthven, C. R. J., and Sandier, M., 1972, Anal. Biochem. 47:550–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gelpi, S., Peralta, E., and Segura, J., 1974, J. Chromatogr. Sci. 12:701–709.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ko, H., Lahti, R. A., Duchamp, D. J., and Royer, M. E., 1974, Anal. Lett. 7:243–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wiesel, F.-A., 1976, Adv. Mass Spectrom. Biochem. Med. 1:171–180.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kilts, C. D., Vrbanac, J. J., Rickert, D. E., and Rech, R. H., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:465–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Warsh, J. J., Chiu, A., Li, P. P., and Godse, D. D., 1980, J. Chromatogr. 183:483–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Holdiness, M. R., Rosen, M. T., Justice, J. B., and Neill, D. B., 1980, J. Chromatogr. 198:329–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Erhardt, J.-D., and Schwartz, J., 1978, Clin. Chim. Acta 88:71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yoshida, J.-I., Yoshino, K., Matsunaga, T., Higa, S., Suzuki, T., Hayashi, A., and Yamamura, Y., 1980, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 7:396–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miyazaki, H., Hashimoto, Y., Iwanaga, M., and Kubodera, T., 1974, J. Chromatogr. 99:575–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hashimoto, Y., and Miyazaki, H., 1979, J. Chromatogr. 168:59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mizuno, Y., and Ariga, T., 1979, Clin. Chim. Acta 98:217–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Freed, C. R., Weinkam, R. J., Melmon, K. L., and Castagnoli, N., 1977, Anal. Biochem. 78:319–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Curtius, H. C., Wolfensberger, M., Steinmann, M., Redweik, U., and Siegfried, J., 1974, J. Chromatogr. 99:529–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang, M.-T., Imai, K., Yoshioka, M., and Tamura, Z., 1975, Clin. Chim. Acta 63:13–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Maume, B. F., Bournot, P., Lhuguenot, J. C., Baron, C., Barbier, F., Maume, G., Prost, M., and Padieu, P., 1973, Anal. Chem. 45:1073–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lhuguenot, J. C., and Maume, B. F., 1980, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 7:529–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Galli, C. L., Cattabeni, F., Eros, T., Spano, P. F., Algeri, S., DiGuilio, A., and Gropetti, A., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27:795–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Robertson, D., Heath, E. C., Falkner, F. C., Hill, R. E., Brilis, G. M., and Watson, J. T., 1978, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 5:704–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Muskiet, F. A. J., Thomasson, C. G., Gerding, A. M., Fremouw-Ottevangers, D. C., Nagel, G. T., and Wolthers, B. G., 1979, Clin. Chem. 25:453–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang, M.-T., Yoshioka, M., Imai, K., and Tamura, Z., 1975, Clin. Chim. Acta 63:21–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Claeys, M., Verzele, M., Vandenwalle, M., Leysen, J., and Laduron, P., 1974, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 1:103–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Durden, D. A., Philips, S. R., and Boulton, A. A., 1973, Can. J. Biochem. 51:995–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Edwards, D. J., Doshi, P. S., and Hanin, I., 1979, Anal. Biochem. 96:308–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Willner, J., LeFevre, H. F., and Costa, E., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23:857–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Karoum, F., Nasrallah, H., Potkin, S., Chuang, L., Moyer-Schwing, J., Phillips, I., and Wyatt, R. J., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33:201–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Axelsson, S., Bjorklund, A., and Seiler, N., 1973, Life Sci. 13:1411–1419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Philips, S. R., Durden, D. A., and Boulton, A. A., 1974, Can. J. Biochem. 52:366–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Philips, S. R., Rozdilski, B., and Boulton, A. A., 1978, Biol. Psychiatry 13:51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Philips, S. R., Davis, B. A., Durden, D. A., and Boulton, A. A., 1975, Can. J. Biochem. 53:65–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Buck, S. H., Murphy, R. C., and Mollinoff, P. B., 1977, Brain Res. 122:281–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Williams, C. M., and Couch, M. W., 1978, Life Sci. 22:2113–2120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Midgley, J. M., Couch, M. W., Crowley, J. R., and Williams, C. M., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34:1225–1230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Durden, D. A., Juorio, A. V., and Davis, B. A., 1980, Anal. Chem. 52:1815–1820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Durden, D. A., Juorio, A. V., and Davis, B. A., 1978, Quant. Mass Spectrom. Life Sci. 2:389–397.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Philips, S. R., Durden, D. A., and Boulton, A. A., 1974, Can. J. Biochem. 52:447–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Warsh, J. J., Godse, D. D., Stancer, H. C., Chan, P. W., and Coscina, D. V., 1977, Biochem. Med. 18:10–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Blau, K., King, G. S., and Sandier, M., 1977, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 4:232–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Donike, M., Gola, R., and Jaenicke, L., 1977, J. Chromatogr. 134:385–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Seiler, N., and Bruder, K., 1975, J. Chromatogr. 106:159–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cattabeni, F., Koslow, S. H., and Costa, E., 1972, Science 178:166–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Beck, O., Wiesel, F.-A., and Sedvall, G., 1977, J. Chromatogr. 134:407–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Curtius, H.-C., Farner, H., and Rey, F., 1980, J. Chromatogr. 199:171–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Liuzzi, A., Foppen, F. H., Saavedra, J. M., Levi-Montalcini, R., and Kopin, I. J., 1977, Brain Res. 133:345–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lewy, A. J., and Markey, S. P., 1978, Science 201:741–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wilson, B. W., Snedden, W., Silman, R. E., Smith, I., and Mullen, P., 1977, Anal. Biochem. 81:283–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sisak, M. E., Markey, S. P., Colburn, R. W., Zavadil, A. P., III,. and Kopin, I. J., 1979, Life Sci. 25:803–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tetsuo, M., Markey, S. P., and Kopin, I. J., 1980, Life Sci. 27:105–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Green, A. R., Koslow, S. H., and Costa, E., 1973, Brain Res. 51:371–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Beck, O., and Bosin, T. R., 1979, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 6:19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Narasimhachari, N., Kempster, E., and Anbar, M., 1980, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 7:231–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wilson, B. W., and Snedden, W., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33:939–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Narasimhachari, N., and Himwich, H. E., 1973, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 55:1064–1071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Raisanen, M., and Karkkainen, J., 1978, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 5:596–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Raisanen, M., and Karkkainen, J., 1979, J. Chromatogr. 162:579–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Walker, R. W., Mandel, L. R., Kleinman, J. E., Gillin, J. C., Wyatt, R. J., and Vandenheuvel, W. J. A., 1979, J. Chromatogr. 162:539–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Axelsson, S., Bjorklund, A., and Seiler, N., 1971, Life Sci. 10:745–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mita, H., Yasueda, H., and Shida, T., 1980, J. Chromatogr. 221:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hough, L. B., Stetson, P. L., and Domino, E. F., 1979, Anal. Biochem. 96:56–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jenden, D. J., Roch, M., and Booth, R. A., 1973, Anal. Biochem. 55:438–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jenden, D. J., Roch, M., and Fainman, F., 1978, Life Sci. 23:291–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lehmann, W. D., and Schulten, H. R., 1978, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 5:591–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Seiler, N., and Lamberty, U., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20:709–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Seiler, N., and Askar, A., 1971, J. Chromatogr. 62:121–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dolezalova, H., Stepita-Klauco, M., and Fairweather, R., 1974, Brain Res. 77:166–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stepita-Klauco, M., and Dolezalova, H., 1974, Nature 252:158–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Seiler, N., 1975, Res. Methods Neurochem. 3:409–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Smith, R. G., and Daves, G. D., Jr., 1977, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 4:146–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Smith, R. G., Bartos, D., Bartos, F., Grettie, D. P., Frick, W., Campbell, R. A., and Daves, G. D., Jr., 1978, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 5:515–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shipe, J. R., Jr., Hunt, D. F., and Savoy, J., 1979, Clin. Chem. 25:1564–1571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Stepita-Klauco, M., Dolezalova, H., and Fairweather, R., 1974, Science 183:536–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Seiler, N., and Schneider, H. H., 1974, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 1:381–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Miyata, T., Okano, Y., Murao, K., Fukunaga, K., Takahama, K., and Kasé, Y., 1979, Life Sci. 25:1731–1738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wiesel, F.-A., Fri, C.-G., and Sedvall, G., 1974, J. Neural Transm. 35:319–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gordon, E. K., Markey, S. P., Sherman, R. L., and Kopin, I. J., 1976, Life Sci. 18:1285–1292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Karoum, F., Gillin, J. C., Wyatt, R. J., and Costa, E., 1975, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 2:183–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Karoum, F., Gillin, J. C., and Wyatt, R. J., 1975, J. Neurochem. 25:653–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sjoquist, B., and Anggard, E., 1972, Anal. Chem. 44:2297–2301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sjoquist, B., Lindstrom, B., and Anggard, E., 1973, Life Sci. 13:1655–1664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Fri, C.-G., Wiesel, F.-A., and Sedvall, G., 1974, Psychopharmacologia 35:295–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gordon, E. K., Oliver, J., Black, K., and Kopin, I. J., 1974, Biochem. Med. 11:32–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fri, C.-G., Wiesel, F.-A., and Sedvall, G., 1974, Life Sci. 14:2469–2480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Vogt, W., Jacob, K., Ohnesorge, A.-B., and Schwertfeger, G., 1980, J. Chromatogr. 199:191–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Takahashi, S., Yoshioka, M., Yoshiue, S., and Tamura, Z., 1978, J. Chromatogr. 145:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Muskiet, F. A. J., Fremouw-Ottevangers, D. C., Nagel, G. T., and Wolthers, B. G., 1979, Clin. Chem. 25:1708–1713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sjoquist, B., 1975, J. Neurochem. 24:199–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Takahashi, S., Godse, D. D., Warsh, J. J., and Stancer, H. C., 1977, Clin. Chem. Acta 81:183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Fellows, L. E., King, G. S., Pettit, B. R., Goodwin, B. L., Ruthven, C. R. J., and Sandler, M., 1978, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 5:508–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Martin, M. E., Karoum, F., and Wyatt, R. J., 1979, Anal. Biochem. 99:283–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Narasimhachari, N.. Prakash, U., Helgeson, E., and Davis, J. M., 1978, J. Chromatogr. Sci. 16:263–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Midgley, J. M., Couch, M. W., Crowley, J. R., and Williams, C. M., 1979, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 6:485–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Davis, B. A., and Boulton, A. A., 1981, J. Chromatogr. 222:271–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bertilsson, L., and Palmer, L., 1972, Science 177:14–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Warsh, J. J., Chan, P. W., Godse, D. D., Coscina, D. V., and Stancer, H. C., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:955–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Artigas, F., and Gelpi, E., 1979, Anal. Biochem. 92:233–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Faull, K. F., Anderson, P. J., Barchas, J. D., and Berger, P. A., 1979, J. Chromatogr. 163:337–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bertilsson, L., Atkinson, A. J., Jr., Althaus, J. R., Harfast, A., Lindgren, J.-E., and Holmstedt, B., 1972, Anal. Chem. 44:1434–1438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Godse, D. D., Warsh, J. J., and Stancer, H. C., 1977, Anal. Chem. 49:915–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Domino, E. F., Mathews, B. N., and Tait, S. K., 1979, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 6:331–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hoskins, J. A., Pollit, R. J., and Evans, S., 1978, J. Chromatogr. 145:285–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Swahn, C.-G., Sandgarde, B., Wiesel, F.-A., and Sedval, G., 1976, Psychopharmacology 48:147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Muskiet, F. A. J., Jeuring, H. A., Nagel, G. T., deBruyn, H. W. A., and Wolthers, B. G., 1978, Clin. Chem. 24:1899–1902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Muskiet, F. A. J., Nagel, G. T., and Wolthers, B. G., 1980, Anal. Biochem. 109:130–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bertilsson, L., 1973, J. Chromatogr. 87:147–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sjoquist, B., Lindstrom, B., and Anggard, E., 1975, J. Chromatogr. 105:309–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Muskiet, F. A. J., Fremouw-Ottevangers, D. C., Nagel, G. T., Wolthers, B. G., and deVries, J. A., 1978, Clin. Chem. 24:2001–2008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Muskiet, F. A. J., Fremouw-Ottevangers, D. C., van der Meulen, J., Wolthers, B. G., and de Vries, J. A., 1978, Clin. Chem. 24:122–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Edwards, D. J., Rizk, M., and Neil, J., 1979, J. Chromatogr. 164:407–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Edwards, D. J., and Rizk, M., 1979, Clin. Chem. Acta 95:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Curtius, H. C., Wolfensberger, M., Redweik, U., Leimbacher, W., Maibach, R. A., and Isler, W., 1975, J. Chromatogr. 112:523–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Takahashi, S., Godse, D. D., Naqvi, A., Warsh, J. J., and Stancer, H. C., 1978, Clin. Chim. Acta 84:55–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Beck, O., Borg, S., Holmstedt, B., and Stibler, H., 1980, Biochem. Pharmacol. 29:693–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Diggory, G. L., Caesar, P. M., Hazelby, D., and Taylor, K. T., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:1323–1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Leone, R. M., Silman, R. E., Hooper, R. J. L., Finnie, M. D. A., Carter, S. J., Edwards, R., Smith, I., Towell, P., and Mullen, P. E., 1979, J. Endocrinol. 82:243–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Smith, I., Francis, P., Leone, R. M., and Mullen, P. E., 1980, Biochem. J. 185:537–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Zagalak, M.-J., Curtius, H.-C., Leimbacher, W., and Redweik, U., 1977, J. Chromatogr. 142:523–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sjoquist, B., 1979, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 6:392–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Trefz, F. K., Erlenmaier, T., Hunneman, D. H., Bartholomé, K., and Lutz, P., 1979, Clin. Chim. Acta 99:211–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wegmann, H., Curtius, H.-C., and Redweik, U., 1978, J. Chromatogr. 158:305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Martinez, E., and Gelpi, E., 1978, J. Chromatogr. 167:77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bertilsson, L., and Costa, E., 1976, J. Chromatogr. 118:395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Huizinga, J. D., Teelken, A. W., Muskiet, F. A. J., Jeuring, H. J., and Wolthers, B. G., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:911–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Colby, B. N., and McCaman, M. W., 1978, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 5:215–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Schmid, R., and Karobath, M., 1977, J. Chromatogr. 139:101–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Cattabeni, F., Galli, C. L., and Eros, T., 1976, Anal. Biochem. 72:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Callery, P. S., Stogniew, M., and Geelhaar, L. A., 1979, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 6:23–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Faull, K. F., DoAmaral, J. R., Berger, P. A., and Barchas, J. D., 1978, J. Neurochem. 31:1119–1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ferkany, J. W., Smith, L. A., Seifert, W. E., Jr., Caprioli, R. M., and Enna, S. J., 1978, Life Sci. 22:2121–2128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wu, P. H., Durden, D. A., and Hertz, L., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:379–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wolfensberger, M., Redweik, U., and Curtius, H.-C., 1979, J. Chromatogr. 172:471–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Collins, F. S., and Summer, G. K., 1978, J. Chromatogr. 145:456–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lapin, A., and Karobath, M., 1980, J. Chromatogr. 193:95–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Leimer, K. R., Rice, R. H., and Gehrke, C. W., 1977, J. Chromatogr. 141:121–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Liardon, R., Ott-Kuhn, U., and Husek, P., 1979, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 6:381–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Seiler, W., Schneider, H. H., and Sonnenberg, K.-D., 1971, Anal. Biochem. 44:451–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Iwase, H., Takeuchi, Y., and Muria, A., 1979, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 27:1307–1315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Schulman, M. F., and Abramson, F. P., 1975, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 2:9–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Durden
    • 1
  • Alan A. Boulton
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychiatric Research DivisionUniversity HospitalSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations