Human Brain Postmortem Studies of Neurotransmitters and Related Markers

  • E. D. Bird
  • L. L. Iversen


During the last two decades many new techniques have been developed to measure neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter-related enzymes and receptor sites in the central nervous system. The application of such neurochemical techniques, together with histochemical staining methods, has greatly expanded our knowledge of transmitter-specific pathways in the animal brain. The possibility that neurotransmitter abnormalities underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders in man has also prompted similar studies in normal and pathological human brain.


Substantia Nigra Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Postmortem Brain Anterior Commissure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Blaschko, H., 1939, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 96:13.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carlsson, A., and Waldeck, B., 1958, Acta Physiol. Scand. 44:293–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bertler, A., and Rosengren, A., 1959, Acta Physiol. Scand. 47:350–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ehringer, H., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1960, Klin. Wochenschr. 38:1236–1239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Perry, T. L., Hansen, S., and Kloster, M., 1973, N. Engl. J. Med. 288:337–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bird, E. D., Mackay, A. V. P., Rayner, C. N., and Iversen, L. L., 1973, Lancet i:1090–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bowen, D. M., Smith, C. B., White, P., and Davison, A. N., 1976, Brain 99:459–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davies, P., and Maloney, A. J. R., 1976, Lancet ii:1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perry, E. K., Gibson, P. N., Blessed, G., Perry, R. H., and Tomlinson, B. E., 1977, J. Neurol. Sci. 34:247–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bird, E. D., Spokes, E. G. S., and Iversen, L. L., 1979, Brain 102:347–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bird, E. D., and Iversen, L. L., 1974, Brain 97:457–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schaltenbrand, G., and Wahren, W., 1977, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain, 2nd ed., George Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Riley, H. A., 1943, An Atlas of the Basal Ganglia, Brain Stem and Spinal Cord, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brodmann, K., 1909, Vergleichende Lokalisation-lehre der Grosshirnirinde in ihren Prinzipien dargestellt auf Grund des Zellenbaues, J. A. Barth, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brockhaus, H., 1942, J. Psychol. Neurol. 51:1–55.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weiner, N., Martin, C., Wesemann, W., and Riederer, P., 1979, J. Neural Transm. 46:253–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Enna, S. J., Bennett, J. P., Jr., Bylund, D. B., Creese, I., Burt, D. R., Charness, M. E., Yamamura, H. I., Simantov, R., and Synder, S. H., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:233–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Coyle, J., 1975, Handbook of Psychopharmacology, Volume 1 (L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 71–79.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spokes, E. G. S., and Koch, D. J., 1978, J. Neurochem. 31:381–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perry, T. L., Hansen, S., and Gandham, S. S., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36:406–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moses, S. G., and Robins, E., 1975, Psychopharmacol. Commun. 1:327–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vogel, W. H., Orfie, V., and Century, B., 1969, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 165:196–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mackay, A. V. P., Yates, C. M., Wright, A., Hamilton, P., and Davies, P., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:841–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Black, I. B., and Geen, S. C., 1975, Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 32:47–49.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fahn, S., and Cote, L. J., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:1039–1042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grote, S. S., Moses, S. G., Robins, E., Hudgens, R. W., and Croninger, A. B., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23:791–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mackay, A. V. P., Davies, P., Dewar, A. J., and Yates, C. M., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:827–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pradhan, S. N., 1980, Life Sci. 26:1643–1656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McGeer, P. L., and McGeer, E. G., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:65–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McGeer, E. G., Fibiger, H. C., McGeer, P. L., and Wickson, V., 1971, Exp. Gerontol. 6:391–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Adolfsson, R., Gottfries, C. G., Roos, B. E., and Winblad, B. 1979, J. Neurol. Transm. 45:81–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carlsson, A., and Winblad, B., 1976, J. Neural Transm. 38:271–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reis, D. J., Ross, R. A., and Joh, T. H., 1977, Brain Res. 136:465–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Robinson, D. S., 1975, Fed. Proc. 34:103–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Spokes, E. G. S., 1979, Brain 102:333–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Frolkis, V. V., Bezrukov, V. V., and Duplenki, Y. K., 1973, Gerontologia 19:45–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Meek, J. L., Bertilsson, L., Cheney, D. L., Zsilla, G., and Costa, E., 1977, J. Gerontol. 32:129–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Davies, P., 1979, Brain Res. 171:319–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Spokes, E. G. S., 1980, Brain 103:178–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spokes, E. G. S., Garrett, N. J., Rossor, M. N., and Iversen, L. L. 1980, J. Neurol. Sci. 48:303–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Iversen, L. L., and Mackay, A. V. P., 1981, Lancet ii: 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bird, E. D., Spokes, E. G. S., and Iversen, L. L., 1979, Brain 102:347–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Arregui, A., Mackay, A. V. P., Spokes, E. G., and Iversen, L. L., 1980, Psychol. Med. 10:307–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smith, J. A., Padwick, D., Mee, T. J. X., Minneman, K. P., and Bird, E. D., 1977, Clin. Endocrinol. 6:219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    McGeer, P. L., McGeer, E. G., and Wade, J. A., 1971, Neurology (Minneap.) 21:1000–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bowen, D. M., White, P., Flack, R. H. A., Smith, C. B., and Davison, A. N., 1974, Lancet i:1247–1249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Spokes, E. G., Garrett, N. J., and Iversen, L. L., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33:773–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Burt, D. R., Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1977, Science 196:326–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Clow, A., Theodorou, A., Jenner, P., and Marsden, C. D. 1980, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 63:135–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Owen, F., Cross, A. J., Waddington, J. L., Poulter, M., Gamble, S. J., and Crow, T. J., 1980, Life Sci. 26:55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Oke, A., Keller, R., Mefford, I., and Adams, R. N., 1978, Science 200:1411–1413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rossor, M. N., Garrett, N., and Iversen, L. L., 1980, J. Neurochem. 35:743–745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Parkinson, J., 1817, An essay on the shaking palsy. Reprinted in: Critchley’s James Parkinson (1955), Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lewy, F. W., 1913, Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilkd. 50:50.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tretiakoff, C., 1921, Rev. Neurol. 37:592–618.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bernheimer, H., Birkmayer, W., Hornykiewicz, O., Jellinger, K., and Seitelberger, F., 1973, J. Neurol. Sci. 20:415–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nagatsu, T., Kato, T., Nagatsu, I., Yukari, K., Inagaki, S., Iizuka, R., and Narabayashi, H., 1979, Adv. Neurol. 24:283–292.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Alzheimer, A., 1911, Z. Ges. Neurol. Psychiatrie 3:891–892.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Huntington, G. S., 1872, Med. Surg. Reporter (Philadelphia) 26:317–321.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Corsellis, J. A. N., 1976, Greenfields Neuropathology, 3rd ed. (W. Blackwood and J. A. N. Corsellis, eds.), Arnold Publishers, London, pp. 822–827.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gale, J. S., Bird, E. D., Spokes, E. G. S., Iversen, L. L., and Jessell, T., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:633–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Arregui, A., Emson, P., Iversen, L. L., and Spokes, E. G. S., 1979, Adv. Neurol. 23:517–525.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cooper, P. E., Fernstrom, M. H., Leeman, S. E., and Martin, J. B., 1980, Neurology (Minneap.) 31:64.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Emson, P. C., Rossor, M., Hunt, S. P., Clement-Jones, V., Fahrenkrug, J., and Rehfeld, J., 1981, Transmitter Biochemistry of Human Brain Tissue (P. Riederer and E. Usdin, eds.), Macmillan, London, pp. 221–234.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Emson, P. C., Rossor, M. N., Hunt, S. P., Marley, P. D., Clement-Jones, V., Rehfeld, J. F., and Fahrenkrug, J., 1980, The Mansell Bequest Symposium.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Emson, P. C., Fahrenkrug, J., and Spokes, E. G. S., 1979, Brain Res. 173:174–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ando, N., Gold, B. I., Bird, E. D., and Roth, R. H., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:617–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bird, E. D., 1977, Neurotransmission and Disturbed Behavior (H. M. van Praac and J. Bruinvels, eds.), Bohn, Scheltema and Holkemn, Utrecht, pp. 140–149.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Alzheimer, A., 1907, Allg. Z. Psychiatr. 64:146–148.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Blocq, P., and Marinesco, G., 1892, Semin Med. (Paris) 12:445.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kraepelin, E., 1910, Klin. Psychiatrie 2:624.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Emson, P. C., and Lindvall, O., 1979, Neuroscience 4:1–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Johnstone, E. C., Crow, T. J., Frith, C. D., Hustand, J., and Kreel, L., 1976, Lancet ii:924–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Weinberger, D. R., Kleinman, J. E., Luchins, D. J., Bigelow, L. B., and Wyatt, R. J., 1980, Am. J. Psychiatry 137:359–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Crow, T. J., Baker, H. F., Cross, A. J., Foseph, M. H., Lofthouse, R., Longden, A., Owen, F., Riley, G. J., Glover, V., and Killpack, W. S., 1979, Br. J. Psychiatry 134:249–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Farley, I. J., Price, K. S., McCullough, E., Deck, J. H. N., Hordyinski, W., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1978, Science 200:456–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bertler, A., 1961, Acta Physiol. Scand. 51:97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rinne, U. K., Sonninen, V., and Hyyppä, M., 1971, Life Sci. 10:549–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Birkmayer, W., Danielczyk, W., Neumayer, E., and Riederer, P., 1974, J. Neural Transm. 35:93–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lloyd, K. G., Mönier, H., Heitz, P. H., and Bartholini, G., 1975, J. Neurochem. 25:789–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stahl, W. L., and Swanson, P. D., 1974, Neurology (Minneap.) 24:813–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bull, G., Hebb, C., and Ratkovic, D., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17:1505–1516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    McGeer, P. L., McGeer, E. G., and Fibiger, H. C., 1973, Neurology (Minneap.) 23:912–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vogel, W. H., Orfei, V., and Century, B., 1969, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 165:196–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Utena, H., Kanamura, H., Suda, S., Nakamura, R., Machiyama, Y., and Takahashi, R., 1968, Proc. Jpn. Acad. Sci. 44:1078–1083.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Emson, P. C., Arregui, A., Clement-Jones, V., Sandberg, B. E. B., and Rossor, M., 1980, Brain Res. 199:147–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Emson, P. C., Rossor, M., and Lee, C. M., 1981, Neurosci. Lett. 22:319–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rossor, M. N., Emson, P. C., Iversen, L. L., Mountjoy, C. W., Roth, M., Hawthorn, J., and Fahrenkrug, J., 1980, The Mansell Bequest Symposium.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Speth, R. C., Wastek, G. J., Johnson, P. C., and Yamamura, H. I., 1978, Life Sci 22:859–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. D. Bird
    • 1
  • L. L. Iversen
    • 2
  1. 1.McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBelmontUSA
  2. 2.Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit, Medical Research Council CentreMedical SchoolCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations