GABA and Taurine What Are Metabolites Like This Doing in Places Like That?

  • Rima Rozen
  • Paul R. Goodyer
  • Charles R. Scriver


Our subject is two “unusual” amino acids, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine, substances that have important relationships with excitable membranes. Both are found in the nervous system, yet they also have prominent extraneural components in their global metabolism and homeostasis. Both are involved in regulatory or adaptive processes. It is the extraneural aspect of these archetypal regulatory substances that attracted our interest.


Gaba Receptor Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Glutamate Decarboxylase Gaba Content Taurine Transport 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abe, M., Takahashi, M., Takeuchi, K., and Fukuda, M., 1968, Studies on the significance of taurine in radiation injury, Radiat. Res. 33:563–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Airaksinen, E. M., 1979, Uptake of taurine, GABA, 5-HT, and dopamine by blood platelets in progressive myoclonus epilepsy, Epilepsia 20:503–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Airaksinen, E. M., Airaksinen, M. M., Sihvola, P., Sihvola, M., and Tuovinen, E., 1979, Uptake of taurine by platelets in retinitis pigmentosa, Lancet 1:474–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, P. A., Baker, D. H., Corbin, J. E., and Helper, L. C., 1979, Biochemical lesions associated with taurine deficiency in the cat, J. Anim. Sci. 49:1227–1234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ando, N., Simon, J. R., and Roth, R. H., 1979, Inverse relationship between GABA and γ-hydroxybutyrate levels in striatum of rat injected with kainic acid, J. Neurochem. 32:623–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrews, P. R., and Johnston, G. A. R., 1979, GABA agonists and antagonists, Biochem. Pharmacol. 28:2697–2702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Antonaccio, M. J., and Taylor, D. G., 1977, Involvement of central GABA receptors in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized cats, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 46:283–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Awapara, J., 1976, The metabolism of taurine in the animal, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 1–19, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Awapara, J., and Berg, M., 1976, Uptake of taurine by slices of rat heart and kidney, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 135–143, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Awapara, J., Landua, A. J., Fuerst, R., and Seale, B., 1950, Free gamma-aminobutyric acid in brain, J. Biol. Chem. 187:35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Balcar, V. J., Mark, J., Borg, J., and Mandel, P., 1979, High-affinity uptake of γ-aminobutyric acid in cultured glial and neuronal cells, Neurochem. Res. 4:339–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barbeau, A., 1978, Taurine and Friedreich’s ataxia, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 429–440, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Barbeau, A., and Donaldson, J., 1974, Zinc, taurine and epilepsy, Arch. Neurol. 30:52–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Barbeau, A., and Huxtable, R. J. (eds.), 1978, Taurine and Neurological Disorders, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Barbeau, A., Tsukada, Y. Y., and Inoue, N., 1976, Neuropharmacologic and behavioral effects of taurine, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 253–266, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Baxter, C. F., and Torralba, G. F., 1975, GABA and GAD in the nervous system of the cockroach Periplaenta americana: Regional distribution and properties of the enzyme, Brain Res. 84:383–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bayoumi, R. A., and Smith, W. R. D., 1972, The effects of dietary vitamin B6 deficiency on the development of the γ-aminobutyrate shunt in rat brain, Biochem. J. 127:84–85.Google Scholar
  18. Benson, B., and Ebels, I., 1978, Pineal peptides, J. Neural Transm. 13(Suppl.):157–173.Google Scholar
  19. Bergamini, L., Mutani, R., Delsedime, M., and Durelli, L., 1974, First clinical experience on the antiepileptic action of taurine, Eur. Neurol. 11:261–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bernasconi, R., Bittiger, H., Heid, J., and Martin, P., 1980, Determination of GABA levels by a [3H]muscimol radioreceptor assay, J. Neurochem. 34:614–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Berson, E. L., Schmidt, S. Y., and Rabin, A. R., 1976, Plasma amino-acids in hereditary retinal disease. Ornithine, lysine and taurine, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 60:142–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bird, E. D., 1976, Normal glutamic acid decarboxylase activity in kidney from patients with Huntington’s disease, J. Neurochem. 27:1555–1557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Blaschko, H., Datta, S. P., and Harris, H., 1953, Pyridoxin deficiency in the rat: Liver L-cysteic acid decarboxylase activity and urinary amino-acids, Br. J. Nutr. 7:364–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Blinderman, J.-M., Maitre, M., Ossola, L., and Mandel, P., 1978a, Purification and some properties of glutamate decarboxylase from human brain, Eur. J. Biochem. 86:143–152.Google Scholar
  25. Blinderman, J.-M., Maitre, M., and Mandel, P., 1978b, Studies on glutamate decarboxylase of the mammalian brain, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:79–92.Google Scholar
  26. Bloch-Tardy, M., Rolland, B., and Gonnard, P., 1974, Pig brain 4-aminobutyrate 2-ketoglutarate transaminase. Purification, kinetics and physical properties, Biochimie 56:823–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Borg, J., Balcar, V. J., Mark, J., and Mandel, P., 1979a, Characterization of taurine uptake by neuronal and glial cells in culture, J. Neurochem. 32:1801–1805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Borg, J., Mark, J., and Mandel, P., 1979b, Effects of amino acids on calcium uptake by glial and neuroblastoma cells, J. Neurobiol. 10:31–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Briel, G., Hellman, B., and NeukofT, V., 1972, Microdetermination of free amino acids in pancreatic islets isolated from obese-hyperglycemic mice, Acta Physiol. Scand. 84:247–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Buffoni, F., Marino Pirisino, P., Banchelli Soldaini, G., and Toccafondi Ferroni, A., 1978, 14C-Taurine transfer from the mucosal to the serosal surface in the everted small intestine of guinea-pig, Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 10:911–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Burg, M. 1976, Renal handling of sodium chloride, in: The Kidney (B. M. Brenner and F. C. Rector, Jr., eds.), pp. 272–298, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  32. Carruthers-Jones, D. I., and van Gelder, N. M., 1978, Influence of taurine dosage on cobalt epilepsy in mice, Neurochem. Res. 3:115–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cavallini, D., De Marco, C., Scandurra, R., Dupré, S., and Graziani, M. T., 1966, The enzymatic oxidation of cysteamine to hypotaurine. Purification and properties of the enzyme, J. Biol. Chem. 241:3189–3196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cavallini, D., Scandurra, R., Dupré, S., Federici, G., Santoro, L., Ricci, G., and Barra, D., 1976, Alternative pathways of taurine biosynthesis, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 59–66, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Cavallini, D., Gaull, G. E., and Zappia, V., 1980, Natural Sulfur Compounds: Novel Biochemical and Structural Aspects, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Chan-Palay, V., 1978, Autoradiographic localization of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors in the rat central nervous system by using [3H]muscimol, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:1024–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Chatagner, F., Lefauconnier, J., and Portemer, C., 1976, On the formation of hypotaurine in various tissues of different species, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 67–71, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Chesney, R. W., and Jax, D. K., 1979, Development aspects of renal β-amino acid transport. II. Ontogeny of uptake and efflux processes and effect of anoxia, Pediatr. Res. 13:861–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chesney, R. W., Scriver, C. R., and Mohyuddin, F., 1976, Localization of the membrane defect in transepithelial transport of taurine by parallel studies in vivo and in vitro in hypertaurinuric mice, J. Clin. Invest. 57:183–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Childs, B., 1977, Persistent echoes of the nature-nurture argument, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 29:1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chovan, J. P., Kulakowski, E. C., Benson, B. W., and Schaffer, S. W., 1979a, Taurine enhancement of calcium binding to rat heart sarcolemma, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 551:129–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chovan, J., Kramer, J., and Schaffer, S., 1979b, Protection by taurine of calcium paradox damage, J Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 11(Suppl.l):15.Google Scholar
  43. Chubb, J., and Huxtable, R., 1978, Isoproterenol-stimulated taurine influx in the perfused rat heart, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 48:369–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Chude, O., 1979, Solubilization and partial purification of the GABA receptor from mouse brain and a binding assay for the solubilized receptor, J. Neurochem. 33:621–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Chude, O., and Wu, J. Y., 1976, A rapid method for assaying enzymes whose substrates and products differ by charge. Application to brain L-glutamate decarboxylase, J. Neurochem. 27:83–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ciesielski, L., Simler, S., Gensburger, C., Mandel, P., Taillandier, G., Benoit-Guyod, J. L., Boucherie, A., Cohen-Addad, C., and Lajzerowicz, J., 1978, GABA-transaminase inhibitors, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:21–42.Google Scholar
  47. Cohen, A. I., 1978, Retinal organization and function: Possible roles for taurine, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 249–264, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Costa, E., and Guidotti, A., 1978, Recent studies on the mechanism whereby benzodiazepines facilitate GABA-ergic transmission, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:371–378.Google Scholar
  49. Costa, E., Guidotti, A., and Toffano, G., 1978, Molecular mechanisms mediating the action of diazepam on GABA receptors, Br. J. Psychol. 133:239–248.Google Scholar
  50. Costa, T., Rodbard, D., and Pert, C. B., 1979, Is the benzodiazepine receptor coupled to a chloride anion channel? Nature 277:315–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Covarrubias, M., and Tapia, R., 1980, Brain glutamate decarboxylase: Properties of its calcium dependent binding to liposomes and kinetics of the bound and free enzyme, J. Neurochem. 34:1682–1688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Csaba, G., Feuer, L., Török, L. J., Dobozy, O., and Kovacs, P., 1979, Analysis of the antagonistic effect of γ-L-glutamyl-taurine on glucocorticoid and triiodothyronine, Acta Anat. 104:427–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dantzler, W. H., and Silbernagl, S., 1976, Renal tubular reabsorption of taurine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and β-alanine studied by continuous microperfusion, Pfluegers Arch. 367:123–128.Google Scholar
  54. De Feudis, F. V., 1978, Vertebrate GABA receptors, Neurochem. Res. 3:263–280.Google Scholar
  55. De Feudis, F. V., Maitre, M., Ossola, L., Elkouby, A., Roussel, G., and Mandel, P., 1978, GABA binding processes in rat brain and liver, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:379–397.Google Scholar
  56. del Rio, R. M., and Caballero, A. L., 1980, Presence of GABA in rat ovary, J. Neurochem. 34:1584–1586.Google Scholar
  57. del Rio, R. M., García-Gracia, M., Muñoz, L. M. O., and De Feudis, F. V., 1978, β-Alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid contents of rat brain; post-mortem changes and effects of amino-oxyacetic acid and di-n-propylacetate, Gen. Pharmacol. 9:45–47.Google Scholar
  58. De Mello, F. G., Bachrach, V., and Nirenberg, M. J., 1976, Ornithine and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities in the developing chick retina, Neurochemistry 27:847–851.Google Scholar
  59. Dickerson, R. E., 1978, Chemical evolution and the origin of life, Sci. Am. 239(3):70–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Di Giorgio, R. M., De Luca, G., and Macaione, S., 1978, Hypotaurine oxidase activity in retina, Bull. Mol. Biol. Med. 3:115–120.Google Scholar
  61. Dolara, P., Agresti, A., Giotti, A., and Pasquini, G., 1973a, Effect of taurine on calcium kinetics of guinea-pig heart, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 24:352–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dolara, P., Marino, P., and Buffoni, F., 1973b, Effect of 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid (taurine) and 2-hydroxyethanesulphonic acid (isethionic acid) on calcium transport by rat liver mitochondria, Biochem. Pharmacol. 22:2085–2094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Dolara, P., Ledda, F., Mugelli, A., Mantelli, L., Zilletti, L., Franconi, F., and Giotti, A., 1978, Effect of taurine on calcium, inotropism and electrical activity of the heart, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 151–159, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Drummond, R. J., and Phillips, A. T., 1974, L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase in nonneural tissues of the mouse, J. Neurochem. 23:1207–1213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Durelli, L., and Mutani, R., 1979, Myotonia, potassium and taurine, J. Neurol. Sci. 42:103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ebadi, M., and Govitrapong, P., 1979, Biogenic amine-mediated alteration of pyridoxal phosphate formation in rat brain, J. Neurochem. 32:845–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Edvinsson, L., and Krause, D. N., 1979, Pharmacologic characterization of GABA receptors mediating vasodilatation of cerebral arteries in vivo, Brain Res. 173:89–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Edvinsson, L., Larsson, B., and Skarby, T., 1980, Effect of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol on regional cerebral blood flow in the rat, Brain Res. 185:445–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Enna, S. J., 1978, Regional variation and characteristics of GABA-receptors in the mammalian CNS, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:323–339.Google Scholar
  70. Enna, S. J., and Snyder, S. H., 1975, Properties of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor binding in rat brain synaptic membrane fractions, Brain Res. 100:81–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Enna, S. J., Wood, J. H., and Snyder, S. H., 1977, γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) in human cerebrospinal fluid: Radioreceptor assay, J. Neurochem. 28:1121–1124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Entman, M. L., Bornet, E. P., and Bressler, R., 1977, The effect of taurine on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, Life Sci. 21:543–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Fahn, S., 1976, Regional distribution studies of GABA and other putative neurotransmitters and their enzymes, in: GABA in Nervous System Function (E. Roberts, T. N. Chase, and D. B. Tower, eds.), pp. 169–186, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Fellman, J. H., Roth, E. S., and Fujita, T. S., 1978, Taurine is not metabolized to isethionate in mammalian tissue, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 19–24, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Ferkany, J. W., Smith, L. A., Seifert, W. E., Caprioli, R. M., and Enna, S. J., 1978, Measurement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in blood, Life Sci. 22:2121–2128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Feuer, L., and Gaal, K., 1979, Effect of glu-taurine on plasma renin activity in the rat and dog, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 39:330–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Feuer, L., Török, O., and Csaba, G., 1978, Effect of glutaurine on vitamin A and prednisolone treated thymus cultures, Acta Morphol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 26:75–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Fisher, S. K., and Davies, W. E., 1974, Some properties of guinea pig brain glutamate decarboxylase and its inhibition by the convulsant allylglycine, J. Neurochem. 23:427–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Forster, R. P., and Goldstein, L., 1979, Amino acids and cell volume regulation, Yale J. Biol. Med. 52:497–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Fozard, J. R., Part, M. L., Prakash, N. J., Grove, J., Schechter, P. J., Sjoerdsma, A., and Koch-Weser, J., 1980, L-Ornithine decarboxylase: An essential role in early mammalian embryogenesis, Science 208:505–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Frangakis, C. J., Bahl, J. J., Grosso, D. S., and Bressler, R., 1978, Structure specific uptake and counter transport of taurine in isolated rat myocytes, Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 21:111–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Friedman, A. L., Albright, P., and Chesney, R. W., 1980, Adaptation of β-amino acid transport to dietary manipulation in adult (A) and weanling (W) rat, Pediatr. Res. 14:619.Google Scholar
  83. Fujiwara, M., and Muramatsu, I., 1975, GABA receptor on vascular smooth muscle of dog cerebral arteries, Br. J. Pharmacol. 55:561–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gaull, G. E., Rassin, D. K., Räihä, N. C. R., and Heinonen, K., 1977, Milk protein quantity and quality in low-birth-weight infants III. Effects on sulfur amino acids in plasma and urine, J. Pediatr. 90:348–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gaut, Z. N., and Nauss, C. B., 1976, Uptake of taurine by human blood platelets: A possible model for brain, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 91–98, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Gerber, J. C. III, and Hare, T. A., 1979, Gamma-aminobutyric acid in peripheral tissue with emphasis on the endocrine pancreas, Diabetes 28:1073–1076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gilbert, J. B., Ku, Y., Rogers, L. L., and Williams, R. J., 1960, The increase in urinary taurine after intraperitoneal administration of amino acids to the mouse, J. Biol. Chem. 235:1055–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Gold, B. J., and Roth, R. H., 1979, Glutamate decarboxylase activity in striatal slices: Characterization of the increase following depolarization, J. Neurochem. 32:883–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Goldman, H., and Scriver, C., 1967, A transport system in mammalian kidney with preference for β-amino compounds, Pediatr. Res. 1:212.Google Scholar
  90. Goldstein, L., 1966, Relation of glutamate to ammonia production in the rat kidney, Am. J.Physiol. 210:661–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Goodman, H. O., Connolly, B. M., McLean, W., and Resnick, M., 1980, Taurine transport in epilepsy, Clin. Chem. 26:414–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Goodyer, P. R., Lancaster, G., Villeneuve, M., and Scriver, C. R., 1980, The relationship of 4-aminobutyric acid metabolism to ammoniagenesis in renal cortex, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 633:191–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Gray, P. N., and Dana, S. L., 1979, GABA synthesis by cultured fibroblasts obtained from persons with Huntington’s disease, J. Neurochem. 33:985–992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Greenlee, D. V., and Olsen, R. W., 1979, Solubilization of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor protein from mammalian brain, Biochem. Biophys, Res. Commun. 88:380–387.Google Scholar
  95. Greenlee, D. V., Van Ness, P. C., and Olsen, R. W., 1978, Gamma-aminobutyric acid binding in mammalian brain: Receptor-like specificity of sodium-independent sites, J. Neurochem. 31:933–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Grosso, D. S., Roeske, W. R., and Bressler, R., 1978a, Characterization of a carriermediated transport system for taurine in the fetal mouse heart in vitro, J. Clin. Invest. 61:944–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Grosso, D. S., Bressler, R., and Benson, B., 1978b, Circadian rhythm and uptake of taurine by the rat pineal gland, Life Sci. 22:1789–1798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Gruener, R., Bryant, H., Markovitz, D., Huxtable, R., and Bressler, R., 1976, Ionic actions of taurine on nerve and muscle membranes: Electrophysiologic studies, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 225–242, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Guidotti, A., 1978, Role of taurine in brain function, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp, 237–248, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  100. Guion-Rain, M., Portemer, C, and Chatagner, F., 1975, Rat liver cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase: Purification, new appraisal of the molecular weight and determination of catalytic properties, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 384:265–276.Google Scholar
  101. Haber, B., and Kuriyama, K., 1969, Effect of cations on the association of L-glutamic acid decarboxylase with some subcellular fractions of mouse brain, Brain Res. 14:767–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Haber, B., Kuriyama, K., and Roberts, E., 1970a, An anion stimulated L-glutamic acid decarboxylase in non-neural tissues, Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:1119–1136.Google Scholar
  103. Haber, B., Sze, P. Y., Kuriyama, K., and Roberts, E., 1970b, GABA as a repressor of L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in developing chick embryo optic lobes, Brain Res. 18:545–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hadjian, R. A., and Stewart, J. A., 1977, Immunologic quantitation of glutamic acid decarboxylase in developing mouse brain, J. Neurochem. 28:1249–1257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Hagins, W. A., and Yoshikami, S., 1974, A role for Ca2+ in excitation of retinal rods and cones, Exp. Eye Res. 18:299–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hardison, W. G. M., and Weiner, R., 1980, Taurine transport by rat hepatocytes in primary culture, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 598:145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hardison, W. G. M., Wood, C. A., and Proffitt, J. H., 1977, Quantification of taurine synthesis in the intact rat and cat liver, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 155:55–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Harris, H., and Searle, A. G., 1953, Urinary amino acids in mice of different genotypes, Ann. Eugen. (Lond.) 17:165–167.Google Scholar
  109. Hayes, K. C., Carey, R. E., and Schmidt, S. Y., 1975, Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat, Science 188:949–950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hill, L. J., and Martin, W. G., 1973, The synthesis of taurine from sulfate V. Regulatory modifiers of the chick liver enzyme system, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 144:530–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hoffmann, E. K., and Hendil, K. B., 1976, The role of amino acids and taurine in isomostic intracellular regulation in Ehrlich ascites mouse tumour cells, J. Comp. Physiol. 108:279–286.Google Scholar
  112. Holden, J. T., 1962, Amino Acid Pools.Distribution, Formation and Function of Free Amino Acids, Elsevier, London.Google Scholar
  113. Hornykiewicz, O., Lloyd, K. G., and Davidson, L., 1976, The GABA system, function of the basal ganglia and Parkinson’s disease, in: GABA in Nervous System Function (E. Roberts, T. N. Chase, and D. B. Tower, eds.), pp. 479–485, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Hösli, E., and Hösli, L., 1980, Autoradiographic localization of 3H-GABA and 3H-muscimol binding in rat cerebellar cultures, Exp. Brain Res. 38:241–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hruska, R. E., Huxtable, R. J., and Yamamura, H. I., 1978, High-affinity, temperaturesensitive, and sodium-dependent transport of taurine in rat brain, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 109–117, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Huxtable, R. J., 1976, Metabolism and function of taurine in the heart, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 99–119, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  117. Huxtable, R. J., 1978, Regulation of taurine in the heart, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 5–17, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Huxtable, R. J., 1980, The regulation and function of taurine in the heart and other organs, in: Natural Sulfur Compounds: Novel Biochemical and Structural Aspects (D. Cavallini, G. E. Gaull, and V. Zappia, eds.), pp. 277–293, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  119. Huxtable, R., and Barbeau, A. (eds.), 1976, Taurine, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  120. Huxtable, R., and Bressler, R., 1973, Effect of taurine on a muscle intracellular membrane, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 323:573–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Huxtable, R., and Bressler, R., 1974, Taurine concentrations in congestive heart failure, Science 184:1187–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Huxtable, R. J., and Bressler, R., 1976, The metabolism of cysteamine to taurine, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 45–57, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  123. Huxtable, R., and Chubb, J., 1977, Adrenergic stimulation of taurine transport by the heart, Science 198:409–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Huxtable, R. J., and Kuriyama, K., 1980, Does taurine have a function? Fed. Proc. 39:2678–2708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Huxtable, R. J., Chubb, J., and Azari, J., 1980, Physiological and experimental regulation of taurine content in the heart, Fed. Proc. 39:2685–2690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ingoglia, N. A., Sturman, J. A., Rassin, D. K., and Lindquist, T. D., 1978, A comparison of the axonal transport of taurine and proteins in the goldfish visual system, J. Neurochem. 31:161–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Iwata, H., Matsuda, T., Yamagami, S., Tsukamoto, T., and Baba, A., 1978, Circadian periodicity of taurine content of rat brain, Brain Res. 143:383–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Izumi, K., Ngo, T. T., and Barbeau, A., 1978, Metabolic modulation in the central nervous system by taurine, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 137–149, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  129. Jacobsen, J. G., and Smith, L. H., 1968, Biochemistry and physiology of taurine and taurine derivatives, Physiol. Rev. 48:424–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Jacobsen, J. G., Thomas, L. L., and Smith, L. H., 1964, Properties and distribution of mammalian L-cysteine sulfinate carbosy-lyases, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 85:103–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Jessen, K. R., Mirsky, R., Dennison, M. E., and Burnstock, G., 1979, GABA may be a neurotransmitter in the vertebrate peripheral nervous system, Nature 281:71–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Joseph, M. H., and Emson, P. C., 1976, Taurine and cobalt induced epilepsy in the rat: A biochemical and electrocorticographic study, J. Neurochem. 27:1495–1501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kaczmarek, L. K., 1976, A comparison of the evidence for taurine and GABA as neurotransmitters, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 283–292, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  134. Knopf, K., Sturman, J. A., Armstrong, M., and Hayes, K. C., 1978, Taurine: An essential nutrient for the cat, J. Nutr. 108:773–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kohashi, N., Yamaguchi, K., Hosokawa, Y., Kori, Y., Fujii, O., and Ueda, I., 1978, Dietary control of cysteine dioxygenase in rat liver, J. Biochem. 84:159–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Krause, D., Wong, E., Degener, P., and Roberts, E., 1980, GABA receptors in bovine cerebral blood vessels: Binding studies with [3H]muscimol, Brain Res. 185:51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Krnjevic, K., and Puil, E., 1976, Electrophysiological studies on actions of taurine, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 179–189, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  138. Krogsgaard-Larsen, P., and Arnt, J., 1978, GABA receptor agonists: Relationship between structure and biological activity in vivo and in vitro, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:303–322.Google Scholar
  139. Krogsgaard-Larsen, P., Scheel-Krüger, J., and Kofod, H., 1978, GABA-Neurotransmitters, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  140. Kulakowski, E. C., Maturo, J., and Schaffer, S. W., 1978, The identification of taurine receptors from rat heart sarcolemma, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 80:936–941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Kuo, C.-H., and Miki, N., 1980, Stimulatory effect of taurine on Ga-uptake by disc membranes from photoreceptor cell outer segments, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 94:646–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Kuriyama, K., and Yoneda, Y., 1978, Morphine induced alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid and taurine contents and L-glutamate decarboxylase activity in rat spinal cord and thalamus: Possible correlates with analgesic action of morphine, Brain Res. 148:163–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kuriyama, K., Haber, B., and Roberts, E., 1970, Occurrence of a new L-glutamic acid decarboxylase in several blood vessels of the rabbit, Brain Res. 23:121–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kuriyama, K., Muramatsu, M., Nakagawa, K., and Kakita, K., 1978, Modulating role of taurine on release of neurotransmitters and calcium transport in excitable tissues, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 201–216, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  145. Lake, N., Marshall, J., and Voaden, M. J., 1978, High affinity uptake sites for taurine in the retina, Exp. Eye Res. 27:713–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lal, H., Fielding, S., Roberts, E., Malick, J., Shah, N., and Usdin, E., 1980, GABA neurotransmission: Current developments in physiology and neurochemistry, Brain Res. Bull. 5:1–925.Google Scholar
  147. Lancaster, G., Mohyuddin, F., and Scriver, C. R., 1973, A γ-aminobutyrate pathway in mammalian kidney cortex, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 297:229–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Lancaster, G. A., Mohyuddin, F., and Scriver, C. R., 1975, Ontogeny of l-glutamic acid decarboxylase and γ-aminobutyric acid concentration in human kidney, Pediatr. Res. 9:484–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lange, R., 1963, The osmotic function of amino acids and taurine in the mussel, Mytilus edulis, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 10:173–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Leach, M. J., 1979, Effect of taurine on release of 3H-GABA by depolarizing stimulifrom superfused slices of rat brain cerebral cortex in vitro, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 31:533–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Lingard, J. M., Cook, D. I., and Young, J. A., 1978, A mathematical analysis of the role of passive diffusion in the renal reabsorption of amino acids and other organic compounds under free flow conditions, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 56:395– 408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Lloyd, K. G., Dreksler, S., Shemen, L., and Davidson, L., 1978, Sodium independent, high-affinity binding of [3H]-γ aminobutyric acid in human neurologic disorders, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:399–418.Google Scholar
  153. Lombardini, J. B., 1978, High-affinity transport of taurine in the mammalian central nervous system, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 119–135, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  154. Lombardini, J. B., and Medina, E. V., 1978, Effects of dietary inorganic sulfate, taurine, and methionine on tissue levels of taurine in the growing rat, J. Nutr. 108:428–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Loriette, C., Pasantes-Morales, H., Portemer, C, and Chatagner, F., 1979, Dietary casein levels and taurine supplementation. Effects on cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase activities and taurine concentration in brain, liver and kidney of the rat, Nutr. Metab. 23:467–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Löscher, W., 1980, Effect of inhibitors of GABA transaminase on the synthesis, binding, uptake, and metabolism of GABA, J. Neurochem. 34:1603–1608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Lupo, M., and Halpern, Y. S., 1970, Gene controlling L-glutamic acid decarboxylase synthesis in Eschenchia coli K-12, J. Bactenol. 103:382–386.Google Scholar
  158. MacDonnell, P., and Greengard, O., 1975, The distribution of glutamate decarboxylase in rat tissue: Isotopic vs. fluorimetric assays, J. Neurochem. 24:615–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Maitre, M., Ossola, L., and Mandel, P., 1978, GABA-transaminase of mammalian brain, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:3–20.Google Scholar
  160. Mandel, P., and De Feudis, F. V., 1978, GABA-biochemistry and GNS functions, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:1–105.Google Scholar
  161. Mann, E., and Enna, S. J., 1980, Phylogenetic distribution of bicuculline-sensitive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor binding, Brain Res. 184:367–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Mantovani, J., and De Vivo, D. C., 1979, Effects of taurine on seizures and growth hormone release in epileptic patients, Arch. Neurol. 36:672–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Martin, D. L., 1976, Carrier-mediated transport and removal of GABA from synaptic regions, in: GABA in Nervous System Function (E. Roberts, T. N. Chase, and D. B. Tower, eds.), pp. 347–386, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  164. Martin, D. L., and Miller, L. P., 1976, Comment on the evidence for GAD II, in: GABA in Nervous System Function (E. Roberts, T. N. Chase, and D. B. Tower, eds.), pp. 57–58, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  165. Martin, D. L., and Shain, W., 1979, High affinity transport of taurine and β-alanine and low affinity transport of γ-aminobutyric acid by a single transport system in cultured glioma cells, J. Biol. Chem. 254:7076–7084.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Martin, S. B., and Martin, D. L., 1979, Stimulation by phosphate of the activation of glutamate apodecarboxylase by pyridoxal-5′-phosphate and its implications for the control of GABA synthesis, J. Neurochem. 33:1275–1283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Martin, W. G., Truex, C. R., Tarka, S. M., Hill, L. J., and Gorby, W. G., 1974, The synthesis of taurine from sulfate VIII. A constitutive enzyme in mammals, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 147:563–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. McBroom, M. J., and Welty, J. D., 1977, Effects of taurine on heart calcium in the cardiomyopathic hamster, J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 9:853–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. McCaman, M. W., Colby, B. N., and McCaman, R. E., 1979, Gamma-aminobutyric acid in ganglia and in single neurons from Aplysia and lobster, J. Neurochem. 33:967–971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. McGeer, P. L., and McGeer, E. G., 1976, Enzymes associated with the metabolism of catecholamines, acetylcholine and GABA in human controls and patients with Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea, J. Neurochem. 26:65–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. McGinnis, M. Y., Gordon, J. H., and Gorski, R. A., 1980, Time course and localization of the effects of estrogen on glutamic acid decarboxylase activity, J. Neurochem. 34:785–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. McMenamy, R. H., Lund, C. C, Neville, G. J., and Wallach, D. F. H., 1960, Studies of unbound amino acid distributions in plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes and urine of normal human subjects, J. Clin. Invest. 39:1675–1687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Meiners, B. A., Speth, R. C, Bresolin, N., Huxtable, R. J., and Yamamura, H. I., 1980, Sodium-dependent, high affinity taurine transport into rat brain synaptosomes, Fed. Proc. 39:2695–2700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Metcalf, B., 1979, Inhibitors of GABA metabolism, Biochem. Pharmacol. 28:1705–1712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Miller, L. P., and Martin, D. L., 1973, An artifact in the radiochemical assay of brain mitochondrial glutamate decarboxylase, Life Sci. 13:1023–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Miller, L. P., Martin, D. L., Mazumber, A., and Walters, J. R., 1978, Studies on the regulation of GABA synthesis: Substrate promoted dissociation of pyridoxal 5∲-phosphate from GAD, J. Neurochem. 30:361–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Miller, S. S., and Steinberg, R. H., 1979, Potassium modulation of taurine transport across the frog retinal pigment epithelium, J. Gen. Physiol. 74:237–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Mohler, H., and Okada, T., 1978, GABA receptor binding with 3H( + )-bicucullinemethiodide in rat CNS, Mol. Pharmacol. 14:256–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Molinoff, P. B., and Kravitz, E. A., 1968, The metabolism of GABA in the lobster nervous system—glutamate decarboxylase, J. Neurochem. 15:391–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Monaco, F., Mutani, R., Durelli, L., and Delsedime, M., 1975, Free amino acids in serum of patients with epilepsy: Significant increase in taurine, Epilepsia 16:245–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Murayama, Y., 1972, [Studies on the effect of aminosulfonic acid to decrease hypertension] (Jpn.), J. Showa Med. Assoc. 32:128–157.Google Scholar
  182. Murrin, L. C., 1980, Ornithine as a precursor for GABA in mammalian brain, J. Neurochem. 34:1779–1781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Mutani, R., Bergamini, L., and Durelli, L., 1978, Taurine in experimental and human epilepsy, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 359–373, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  184. Nakagawa, K., and Kuriyama, K., 1975, Effect of taurine on alteration in adrenal functions induced by stress, Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 25:737–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Nara, Y., Yamori, Y., and Lovenberg, W., 1978, Effect of dietary taurine on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, Biochem. Pharmacol. 27:2689–2692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Nayman, R., Thomson, M. E., Scriver, C. R., and Clow, C. L., 1979, Observations on the composition of milk-substitute products for treatment of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism. Comparisons with human milk. A proposal to rationalize nutrient content of treatment products, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:1279–1289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Neuhoff, V., and Tonge, S. R., 1973, Some pharmacologic indications of a role fro taurine in the regulation of pituitary activity, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 25(Suppl.):138–139P.Google Scholar
  188. Nicoll, R. A., 1978, The blockade of GABA mediated responses in the frog spinal cord by ammonium ions and furosemide, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 283:121–132.Google Scholar
  189. Nistri, A., and Constanti, A., 1979, Pharmacologie characterization of different types of GABA and glutamate receptors in vertebrates and invertebrates, Prog. Neurobiol. 13:117–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Nitsch, C., 1980, Regulation of GABA metabolism in discrete rabbit brain regions under methoxypyridoxine—regional differences in cofactor saturation and the preictal activation of glutamate decarboxylase activity, J. Neurochem. 34:822–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Oja, S. S., and Kontro, P., 1978, Neurotransmitter actions of taurine in the central nervous system, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 181–200, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  192. Oja, S. S., Karvonen, M. L., and Lähdesmäki, P., 1973, Biosynthesis of taurine and enhancement of decarboxylation of cysteine sulphinate and glutamate by the electrical stimulation of rat brain slices, Brain Res. 55:173–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Okada, Y., Taniguchi, H., and Shimada, C., 1976, High concentration of GABA and high glutamate decarboxylase activity in rat pancreatic islets and human insulinoma, Science 194:620–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Olsen, R. W., Van Ness, P., Napias, C., Bergman, M., and Tourtellotte, W. W., 1980, GABA receptor binding and endogenous inhibitors in normal human brain and Huntington’s disease, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 21:451–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Ossola, L., De Feudis, F. V., and Mandel, P., 1980, Lack of Na+-independent [3H]-GABA binding to particulate fractions of cultured astroblasts of rat brain, J. Neurochem. 34:1026–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Palacios, J. M., Niehoff, D. L., and Kuhar, M. J., 1979, Ontogeny of GABA and benzodiazepine receptors: Effects of Triton X-100, bromide and muscimol, Brain Res. 179:390–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Pasantes-Morales, H., Salceda, R., and Lopez-Colomé, A. M., 1978, Taurine in normal retina, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 265–279, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  198. Pasantes-Morales, H., Ademe, R. M., and Lopez-Colomé, A. M., 1979, Taurine effects on 45Ca2+ transport in retinal subcellular fractions, Brain Res. 172:131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Pentz, E. I., 1968, Taurine excretion studies in human subjects, Biochem. Med. 2:70–86.Google Scholar
  200. Pepeu, G., Kuhar, M. J., and Enna, S. J., 1980, Receptors for Neurotransmitters and Peptide Hormones, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  201. Perry, T. L., 1978, Taurine in dominantly inherited cerebellar strophies and other human neurological disorders, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 441-451, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  202. Perry, T. L., Berry, K., Hansen, S., Diamond, S., and Mok, C., 1971, Regional distribution of amino acids in human brain obtained at autopsy, J. Neurochem. 18:513–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Perry, T. L., Hansen, S., and Kloster, M., 1972, Huntingtons chorea: Deficiency of GABA in brain, N. Engl. J. Med. 288:337–342.Google Scholar
  204. Peterson, M. B., Mead, R. J., and Welty, J. D., 1973, Free amino acids in congestive heart failure, J. Mol. Cell. Cardwl. 5:139–147.Google Scholar
  205. Phillis, J. W., 1976, An involvement of calcium and Na,K-ATPase in the inhibitory actions of various compounds on central neurons, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 209–223, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  206. Politis, M. J., and Ingoglia, N. A., 1979, Axonal transport of taurine along neonatal and young adult rat optic axons, Brain Res. 166:221–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Portman, O. W., and Mann, G. V., 1955, The disposition of taurine-S35 in the rat: Dietary influences, J. Biol. Chem. 213:733–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Portman, O. W., and Mann, G. V., 1956, Further studies of the metabolism of taurine-S35 by the rat, J. Biol. Chem. 220:105–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Rassin, D. K., Sturman, J. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1978, Taurine and other free amino acids in milk of man and other mammals, Early Hum. Dev. 2/1:1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Read, W. O., and Welty, J. D., 1963, Effect of taurine on epinephrine and digoxin induced irregularities of the dog heart, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 139:283–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Reichelt, K. L., and Kvamme, E., 1973, Histamine-dependent formation of N-acetylaspartyl-peptides in mouse brain, J. Neurochem. 21:849–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Reisine, T. D., Overstreel, D., Gale, K., Rossor, M., Iversen, L., and Yamamura, H. I., 1980, Benzodiazepine receptors: The effect of GABA on their characteristics in human brain and their alteration in Huntington’s disease, Brain Res. 199:79–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Remtulla, M. A., Katz, S., and Applegarth, D. A., 1978, Effect of taurine on ATP-dependent calcium transport in guinea-pig cardiac muscle, Life Sci. 23:383–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Remtulla, M. A., Katz, S., and Applegarth, D. A., 1979, Effect of taurine on passive ion transport in rat brain synaptosomes, Life Sci. 24:1885–1892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Rigo, J., and Senterre, J., 1977, Is taurine essential for the neonates? Biol. Neonate 32:73–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Roberts, E., 1960, Inhibition in the Nervous System and Gamma-Amino butyric Acid, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  217. Roberts, E., and Frankel, S., 1950, Gamma-aminobutyric acid in brain: Its formation from glutamic acid, J. Biol. Chem. 187:55–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Roberts, E., Chase, T. N., and Tower, D. B., 1976, GABA in Nervous System Function, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  219. Rososki, R., 1978, Net uptake of L-glutamate and GABA by high affinity synaptosomal transport systems, J. Neurochem. 31:493–498.Google Scholar
  220. Rozen, R., Tenenhouse, H. S., and Scriver, C. R., 1979, Taurine transport in renal brush-border-membrane vesicles, Biochem. J. 180:245–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Rozen, R., Mohyuddin, F., and Scriver, C. R., 1980, Origin of hypertaurinuria and response to adaptive stimuli in high excretor mouse, Pediatr. Res. 14:624.Google Scholar
  222. Saito, K., Wu, J. Y., Matsuda, T., and Roberts, E., 1974, Immunochemical comparisons of vertebrate glutamic acid decarboxylase, Brain Res. 65:277–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Salceda, R., Carabex, A., Pacheco, P., and Pasantes-Morales, H., 1979, Taurine levels, uptake and synthesizing enzyme activities in degenerated rat retinas, Exp. Eye Res. 28:137–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Salganicoff, L., and De Robertis, E., 1965, Subcellular distribution of the enzymes of the glutamic acid, glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid cycles in rat brain, J. Neurochem. 12:287–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Schafer, J. A., and Barfuss, D. W., 1980, Membrane mechanisms for transepithelial amino acid absorption and secretion, Am. J. Physiol. 238:F335–F346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Schaffer, S. W., Kramer, J., and Chovan, J. P., 1980, Regulation of calcium homeostasis in the heart by taurine, Fed. Proc. 39:2691–2694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Schaffer, S. W., Kocsis, J. J., and Baskin, S. I., 1981, Actions of Taurine on Excitable Tissues, Spectrum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  228. Schmidt, S. Y., 1978, Taurine fluxes in isolated cat and rat retinas: Effects of illumination, Exp. Eye Res. 26:529–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Schmidt, S. Y., 1980, Biochemical and functional abnormalities in retinas of taurinedeficient cats, Fed. Proc. 39:2706–2708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Schmidt, S. Y., and Berson, E. L., 1978, Taurine uptake in isolated retinas of normal rats and rats with hereditary retinal degeneration, Exp. Eye Res. 27:191–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Schon, F., and Kelly, J. S., 1975, Selective uptake of [3H]-β-alanine by glia: Association with the glial uptake system for GABA, Brain Res. 86:243–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Schousboe, A., 1978, Significance of the glial transport system for the inactivation of GABA and effect of structural analogues on the uptake, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:219–237.Google Scholar
  233. Schubert, D., Carlisle, W., and Look, C., 1975, Putative neurotransmitters in clonal cell lines, Nature 254:341–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Scriver, C. R., 1979, The William Allan Memorial Award Address: On phosphate transport and genetic screening. “Understanding backward—living forward” in human genetics, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 31:243–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Scriver, C. R., and Rosenberg, L. E., 1973a, Distribution of amino acids in body fluids, in: Amino Acid Metabolism and its Disorders (C. R. Scriver and L. E. Rosenberg, eds.), pp. 39–60, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  236. Scriver, C. R., and Rosenberg, L. E., 1973b, Generalized disorders of amino acid transport: The Fanconi syndrome, in: Amino Acid Metabolism and its Disorders (C. R. Scriver and L. E. Rosenberg, eds.), pp. 197–204, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  237. Scriver, C. R., and Whelan, D. T., 1969, Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in mammalian tissue outside the nervous system, and its possible relevance to hereditary B6 dependent seizures, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 166:83–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Scriver, C. R., Pueschel, S., and Davies, E., 1966, Hyper-β-alaninemia associated with β-aminoaciduria and γ-aminobutyricaciduria, somnolence and seizures, N. Engl. J. Med. 274:636–643.Google Scholar
  239. Scriver, C. R., Chesney, R. W., and Mclnnes, R. R., 1976, Genetic aspects of renal tubular transport: Diversity and topology of carriers, Kidney Int. 9:149–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Sehlin, J., 1978, Interrelationship between chloride fluxes in pancreatic islets and insulin release, Am. J. Physiol. 235:E501–E508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Seiler, N., and Al-Therib, M. J., 1974, Putrescine catabolism in mammalian brain, Biochem. J. 144:29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Seiler, N., and Wiechmann, M., 1969, Zum Vorkommen der γ-Aminobuttersaure und der γ-Amino-β-hydroxy-buttersaure in tierischem Gewebe, Hoppe Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 350:1493–1500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Seligman, B., Miller, L. P., Brockman, D. E., and Martin, D. L., 1978, Studies on the regulation of GABA synthesis: The interaction of adenine nucleotides and glutamate with brain glutamate decarboxylase, J. Neurochem. 30:371–376.Google Scholar
  244. Sgaragli, G. P., 1978, Effects of taurine on animal behavior, in: Taurine and and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 307–318, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  245. Shukuya, R., and Schwert, G. W., 1960, Glutamic acid decarboxylase, J. Biol. Chem. 235:1649–1652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Silaeva, T. Y., and Dokshina, G. A., 1980, Effect of taurine on the incretory activity of pancreas in vitro, Vopr. Med. Khim. 26:75–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Sims, K. L., and Pitts, F. N., Jr., 1970, Brain glutamate decarboxylase: Changes in the developing rat brain, J. Neurochem. 17:1607–1612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Snodgrass, S. R., 1978, Use of 3H-muscimol for GABA receptor studies, Nature 273:392–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Sobue, K., and Nakajima, T., 1978, Changes in the concentration of polyamines and GABA and their formation in chick embryo during development, J. Neurochem. 30:277–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Spaeth, D. G., and Schneider, D. L., 1974a, Taurine synthesis, concentration and bile salt conjugation in rat, guinea pig and rabbit, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 147:855–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Spaeth, D. G., and Schneider, D. L., 1974b, Turnover of taurine in rat tissue, J. Nutr. 104:179–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Spaeth, D. G., and Schneider, D. L., 1976, Taurine metabolism: Effects of diet and bile salt metabolism, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 35–44, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  253. Spokes, E. G. S., 1978, GABA in Huntington’s chorea, parkinsonism and schizophrenia, 1978, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:461–473.Google Scholar
  254. Stanton, H. C., and Woodhouse, F. H., 1960, The effect of GABA and some related compounds on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized dogs, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 128:233–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Starr, M. S., 1978, Uptake of taurine by retina in different species, Brain Res. 151:604–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Stipanuk, M. H., 1979, Effect of excess dietary methionine on the catabolism of cysteine in rats, J. Nutr. 109:2126–2139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Strausbauch, P. H., and Fischer, E. H., 1970, Chemical and physical properties of E. coli glutamate decarboxylase, Biochemistry 9:226–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Sturman, J. A., 1973, Taurine pool sizes in the rat: Effects of vitamin B-6 deficiency and high taurine diet, J. Nutr. 103:1566–1580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Sturman, J. A., and Cohen, P. A., 1971, Cystine metabolism in vitamin B6 deficiency: Evidence of multiple taurine pools, Biochem. Med. 5:245–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Sturman, J. A., and Hayes, K. C., 1980, The biology of taurine in nutrition and development, in: Advances in Nutritional Research, Vol. 3 (H. H. Draper, ed.), pp. 231–299, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  261. Sturman, J. A., Cohen, P. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1969, Effects of deficiency on vitamin B6 on transsulfuration, Biochem. Med. 3:244–251.Google Scholar
  262. Sturman, J. A., Hepner, G. W., Hofmann, A. F., and Thomas, P. J., 1976, Taurine pool sizes in man: Studies with 35S-taurine, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 21–33, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  263. Sturman, J. A., Rassin, D. K., and Gaull, G. E., 1977, Taurine in development, Life Sci. 21:1–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Sturman, J. A., Rassin, D. K., Hayes, K. C., and Gaull, G. E., 1978, Taurine deficiency in the kitten: Exchange and turnover of [35S]taurine in brain, retina and other tissues, J. Nutr. 108:1462–1476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Sumizu, K., 1962, Oxidation of hypotaurine in rat liver, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 63:210–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Swan, P., Wentworth, J., and Linkswiler, H., 1964, Vitamin B6 depletion in man: Urinary taurine and sulfate excretion and nitrogen balance, J. Nutr. 84:220–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Sweet, C. S., Wenger, H. C., and Gross, D. M., 1979, Central antihypertensive properties of muscimol and related GABA agonists and the interaction of muscimol with baroreceptors, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 57:600–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Sze, P. Y., 1978, L-Glutamate decarboxylase, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:59–78.Google Scholar
  269. Sze, P. Y., and Lovell, R. A., 1970, Reduction of levels of L-glutamic acid decarboxylase by γ-aminobutyric acid in mouse brain, J. Neurochem. 17:1657–1664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Tachiki, K. H., and Baxter, C. F., 1979, Taurine levels in brain tissues: A need for reevaluation, J. Neurochem. 33:1125–1129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Takahashi, H., Tiba, M., Yamazaki, T., and Noguchi, F., 1958, On the site of action of GABA on blood pressure, Jpn. J. Physiol. 8:378–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Takeuchi, H., 1976, Studies of inhibitory effects of GABA in invertebrate nervous systems, in: GABA in Nervous System Function (E. Roberts, T. N. Chase, and D. B. Tower, eds.), pp. 255–267, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  273. Tallan, H. H., Moore, S., and Stein, W. H., 1954, Studies on the free amino acids and related compounds in the tissues of the cat, J. Biol. Chem. 211:927–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Tallman, J. F., Paul, S. M., Skolnick, P., and Gallager, D. W., 1980, Receptors for the age of anxiety: Pharmacology of the benzodiazepines, Science 207:274–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Taniguchi, H., Okada, Y., Seguchi, H., Shimada, C., Seki, M., and Tsutou, A., 1979, High concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid in pancreatic beta cells, Diabetes 28:629–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Tapia, R., and Meza-Ruiz, G., 1976, Changes in some properties of glutamate decarboxylase activity during the maturation of brain, Neurochem. Res. 1:133–140.Google Scholar
  277. Tappaz, M. L., Brownstein, M. J., and Palkovits, M., 1976, Distribution of glutamate decarboxylase in discrete brain nuclei, Brain Res. 108:371–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Tardy, J., Bardakdjian, J., and Gonnard, P., 1978, GABA metabolism in cultured glial cells, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 123:177–188.Google Scholar
  279. Thompson, D. E., and Vivian, V. M., 1977, Dietary-induced variations in urinary taurine levels of college women, J. Nutr. 107:673–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Thurston, J. H., Hauhart, R. E., and Dirgo, J. A., 1980, Taurine: A role in osmotic regulation of mammalian brain and possible clinical significance, Life Sci. 26:1561–1568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Thut, P. D., Hruska, R. E., Huxtable, R., and Bressler, R., 1976, Effect of taurine on eating and drinking behavior, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 357–364, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  282. Ticku, M. K., 1979, Differences in γ-aminobutyric acid receptor sensitivity in inbred strains of mice, J. Neurochem. 33:1135–1138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Tiedemann, F., and Gmelin, L., 1827, Einige neue Bestandtheile der Galle des Ochsen, Ann. Physik. Chem. 9:326–337.Google Scholar
  284. Toffano, G., Guidotti, A., and Costa, E., 1978, Purification of an endogenous protein inhibitor of the high-affinity binding of γ-aminobutyric acid to synaptic membranes of rat brain, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:4024–4028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Toffano, G., Leon, A., Massoti, M., Guidotti, A., and Costa, E., 1980, GABA-modulin: A regulatory protein for GABA receptors, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 21:133–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Tokunaga, H., Yoneda, Y., and Kuriyama, K., 1979, Protective actions of taurine against streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, Biochem. Pharmacol. 28:2807–2811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Tsunoo, S., Horishaka, K., and Yamaguchi, A., 1968, [Pharmacologic studies on taurine with an emphasis on clinical application] (Jpn.), J. Showa Med. Assoc. 28:301–317.Google Scholar
  288. Tursky, T., and Laššánová, M., 1978, Inhibition of different molecular brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) with ATP, J. Neurochem. 30:903–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Tzeng, S., and Ho, I. K., 1977, Effects of acute and continuous pentobarbital administration on the gamma-aminobutyric acid system, Biochem. Pharmacol. 26:699–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Udenfriend, S., 1950, Identification of gamma-aminobutyric acid in brain by the isotope derivative method, J. Biol. Chem. 187:65–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Van der Heyden, J. A. M., Venema, K., and Korf, J., 1979a, In vivo release of endogenous GABA from rat substantia nigra measured by a novel method, J. Neurochem. 32:469–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Van der Heyden, J. A. M., De Kloet, E. R., Korf, J., and Versteeg, D. H. G., 1979b, GABA content of discrete brain nuclei and spinal cord of rat, J. Neurochem. 33:857–861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. van Gelder, N. M., 1967, A possible enzyme barrier for γ-aminobutyric acid in the central nervous system, Prog. Brain Res. 29:259–268.Google Scholar
  294. van Gelder, N. M., 1978, Glutamic acid and epilepsy: The action of taurine, in: Taurine and Neurological Disorders (A. Barbeau and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), pp. 387–402, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  295. van Gelder, N., and Elliott, K. A. C., 1958, Disposition of γ-aminobutyric acid administered to mammals, J. Neurochem. 3:139–143.Google Scholar
  296. van Gelder, N. M., Sherwin, A. L., and Rasmussen, T., 1972, Amino acid content of epileptogenic human brain: Focal versus surrounding regions, Brain Res. 40:385–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. van Gelder, N. M., Sherwin, A. L., Sacks, C., and Andermann, F., 1975, Biochemical observations following administration of taurine to patients with epilepsy, Brain Res. 94:297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Vessey, D. A., 1978, The biochemical basis for the conjugation of bile acids with either glycine or taurine, Biochem. J. 174:621–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Watson, G. M., 1962, The origin of taurine excreted in the urine after whole-body irradiation, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 5:79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Welty, J. D., and Read, W. O., 1964, Studies on some cardiac effects of taurine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 144:110–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Welty, J. D., McBroom, M. J., Appelt, A. W., Peterson, M. B., and Read, W. O., 1976, Effect of taurine on heart and brain electrolyte imbalances, in: Taurine (R. J. Huxtable and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 155–163, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  302. Whelan, D. T., Scriver, C. R., and Mohyuddin, F., 1969, Glutamic acid decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyric acid in mammal kidney, Nature 224:916–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Wheler, G. H. T., and Klein, D. C., 1980, Taurine release from the pineal gland is stimulated via a β-adrenergic mechanism, Brain Res. 187:155–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Whittle, B., and Smith, J. T., 1974, Effect of dietary sulfur on taurine excretion by the rat, J. Nutr. 104:666–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Williams, M., and Risley, E. A., 1979, Characterization of the binding of [3H]muscimol, a potent γ-aminobutyric acid agonist, to rat brain synaptosomal membranes using a filtration assay, J. Neurochem. 32:713–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Williams, R. J., 1956, Excretion patterns, in: Biochemical Individuality (R. J. Williams, ed.), pp. 97–105, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  307. Wood, J. G., McLaughlin, B. J., and Vaughn, J. E., 1976, Immunocytochemical localization of GAD in electron microscopic preparations of rodent CNS, in: GABA in Nervous System Function (E. Roberts, T. N. Chase, and D. B. Tower, eds.), pp. 133–148, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  308. Wu, J.-Y., 1976, Purification, characterization, and kinetic studies of GAD and GABA-T from mouse brain, in: GABA in Nervous System Function (E. Roberts, T. N. Chase, and D. B. Tower, eds.), pp. 7–60, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  309. Wu, J.-Y., and Roberts, E., 1973, Comparative studies of L-glutamate decarboxylases from mouse brain and kidney, Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 4:70.Google Scholar
  310. Wu, J.-Y., Matsuda, T., and Roberts, E., 1973, Purification and characterization of glutamate decarboxylase of mouse brain, J. Biol. Chem. 248:3029–3034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Wu, J.-Y., Chude, O., Wein, J., Roberts, E., Saito, K., and Wong, E., 1978a, Distribution and tissue specificity of glutamate decarboxylase (E.C., J. Neurochem. 30:849–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Wu, J.-Y., Moss, L. G., and Chude, O., 1978b, Distribution and tissue specificity of 4-aminobutyrate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, Neurochem. Res. 3:207–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Yamaguchi, K., Sakakibara, S., Koga, K., and Ueda, I., 1971, Induction and activation of cysteine oxidase of rat liver I. The effects of cysteine, hydrocortisone, and nicotinamide injection on hepatic cysteine oxidase and tyrosine transaminase activities of intact and adrenalectomized rats, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 237:502–512.Google Scholar
  314. Yamaguchi, K., Sakakibara, S., Asamizu, J., and Ueda, I., 1973, Induction and activation of cysteine oxidase of rat liver II. The measurement of cysteine metabolism in vivo and the activation of in vivo activity of cysteine oxidase, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 297:48–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Yamaguchi, K., Hosokawa, Y., Kohashi, N., Kori, Y., Sakakibara, S., and Ueda, I., 1978, Rat liver cysteine dioxygenase (cysteine oxidase). Further purification, characterization, and analysis of the activation and inactivation, J. Biochem. 83:479–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Yoshida, T., Tada, K., and Arakawa, T., 1971, Vitamin B6-dependency of glutamic acid decarboxylase in kidney from a patient with vitamin B6 dependent convulsion, Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 104:195–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Yoshino, Y., Koike, H., and Akai, K., 1979, Free amino acids in motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Experientia 35:219–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Zachmann, M., Tocci, P., and Nyhan, W. L., 1966, The occurrence of γ-aminobutyric acid in human tissues other than brain, J. Biol. Chem. 241:1355–1358.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rima Rozen
    • 1
  • Paul R. Goodyer
    • 2
  • Charles R. Scriver
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.McGill University/Montreal Children’s HospitalMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations