Diabetes Mellitus Selected Aspects of Pathophysiology and Clinical Practice

  • Daniel PorteJr.
  • Jeffrey B. Halter
  • Christoph de Haën
  • Jerry P. Palmer
  • Christopher M. Asplin
  • Ronald J. Graf
  • Michael A. Pfeifer


The field of diabetes has become extremely broad and difficult to review at any one time. The authors have, therefore, selected six topics in which new insights important to the etiology, pathogenesis, or treatment of diabetes have become evident in the past 2–3 years. Each area attempts to present a coherent statement of new information, its relationship to earlier data, what the clinical implications may be, and what the future is likely to bring. Topics will be chosen in future years based on a judgment that sufficient new information has accumulated to be organized in such a way. No attempt to completely review the literature has been made, but selected references should make it accessible to the interested reader.


Insulin Secretion Insulin Receptor Diabetic Neuropathy Autonomic Neuropathy Nerve Conduction Velocity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abraham, E. C, Huff, T. A., Cope, N. D., Wilson, J. G. Bransome, E. D., and Huisman, T. H. J., 1978, Determination of the glycosylated hemoglobins (HbA1) with a new microcolumn procedure. Suitability of the technique for assessing the clinical management of diabetes mellitus, Diabetes 27:931–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramson, E. A., Arky, R. A., and Woeber, K. A., 1966, Effects of propranolol on the hormonal and metabolic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, Lancet 2:1386–1388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akhtar, M. S., Verspohl, E., Hegner, D., and Ammon, H. P. T., 1977, 6-Phosphogluconate/glucose-6-phosphate ratio in rat pancreatic islets during inhibition of insulin release by exogenous insulin, Diabetes 26:857–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alberti, K. G. M. M., and Nattrass, M., 1978, Highly purified insulins, Diabetologia 15:77–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aleyassine, H., 1978, Low proportions of glycosylated hemoglobin associated with hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C, Clin. Chem. 25:1484–1486.Google Scholar
  6. Allen, D. W., Schroeder, W. A., and Balog, J., 1958, Observations on the Chromatographic heterogeneity of normal adult and fetal human hemoglobin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80:1628–1634.Google Scholar
  7. Aminoff, M. J., 1980, Peripheral sympathetic function in patients with a polyneuropathy, J. Neurol. Sci. 44:213–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ammon, H. P. T., and Verspohl, E., 1976, Pyridine nucleotides in pancreatic islets during inhibition of insulin release by exogenous insulin, Endrocrinology 99:1469–1476.Google Scholar
  9. Andersen, D. K., Elahi, D., Brown, J. C, Tobin, J. D., and Andres, R., 1978, Oral glucose augmentation of insulin secretion. Interactions of gastric inhibitory polypeptide with ambient glucose and insulin levels, J. Clin. Invest. 62:152–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Andreasen, A. T., and Maraspini, C, 1976, Symptomless hypoglycemia, S. Afr. Med. J. 50:1339–1341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Archer, J. A., Gordon, P., and Roth, J., 1975, Defect in insulin binding to receptors in obese man: Amelioration with caloric restriction, J. Clin. Invest. 55:166–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Arturson, G., Garby, L., Robert, M., and Zaar, B., 1974, Oxygen affinity of whole blood in vivo and under standard conditions in subjects with diabetes mellitus, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 34:190–222.Google Scholar
  13. Asbury, A. K., and Johnson, P. C, 1978, Diabetic neuropathy, in: Pathology of Peripheral Nerves (A. K. Asbury and P. G. Johnson, eds.), pp. 96–109, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  14. Asplin, C. M., 1979, Factors Influencing a Diabetic’s Daily Insulin Dosage, M. D. Thesis, University of Bristol.Google Scholar
  15. Asplin, C. M., Hartog, M., Goldie, D. J., Alberti, K. G. M. M., Symthe, P., Binder, C, and Faber, O. K., 1978a, A comparison between diabetics receiving a high or low daily insulin dosage, Horm. Metab. Res. 10:365–369.Google Scholar
  16. Asplin, C. M., Hartog, M., and Goldie, D. J., 1978b, The relationship between circulating free and bound insulin, insulin antibodies, insulin dosage, and diabetic control in insulin treated diabetics, Acta Endocrinol. (Kbh.) 87:330–338.Google Scholar
  17. Asplin, C. M., Hartog, M., and Goldie, D. J., 1978c, Change of insulin dosage, circulating free and bound insulin and insulin antibodies on transferring diabetics from conventional to highly purified porcine insulin, Diabetologia 14:99–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Asplin, C. M., Hartog, M., Goldie, D. J., Alberti, K. G. M. M., Binder, C., and Faber, O. K., 1979, Diurnal profiles of serum insulin, C-peptide and blood intermediary metabolites in insulin treated diabetics, their relationship to the control of diabetes and the role of endogenous insulin secretion, Q. J. Med. 48:343–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Asplin, C. M., Hartog, M., Goldie, D. J., Smythe, P., and Alberti, K. G. M. M., 1980, The role of insulin absorption and sensitivity in determining a diabetic’s daily insulin dosage, Acta Endocrinol. (Kbh.) 93:190–195.Google Scholar
  20. Asplin, C. M., Hollander, P., Pecoraro, R. E., Brodsky, J., and Palmer, J. P., 1981, Insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, and glucagon antibodies in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Care 4:337–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bachmann, W., Bottiger, I., Haslbeck, M., and Mehnert, H., 1979, Extrapancreatic action of sulfonylureas: Effect of gliquidone on insulin and glucagon binding to rat liver plasma membranes, Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 9:411–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Baldwin, D., Jr., Prince, M., Marshall, S., Davies, P., and Olefsky, J. M., 1980, Regulation of insulin receptors: Evidence for involvement of an endocytotic internalization pathway, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:5975–5978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Barnett, A. H., Leslie, D., and Watkins, P. J., 1980, Can insulin-treated diabetics be given beta-adrenergic blocking drugs? Br. Med. J. 280:976–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Beck-Neilsen, H., Pedersen, O., and Lindskov, H. O., 1979, Increased insulin sensitivity and cellular insulin binding in obses diabetics following treatment with glibenclamide, Acta Endocrinol. (Kbh.) 90:451–462.Google Scholar
  25. Behse, F., Buchthal, F., and Carlsen, F., 1977, Nerve biopsy and conduction studies in diabetic neuropathy, J. Nenrol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 40:1072–1082.Google Scholar
  26. Berson, S. A., and Yalow, R. S., 1959, Quantitative aspects of the reaction between insulin and insulin-binding antibody, J. Clin. Invest. 38:1996–2016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Berson, S. A., and Yarlow, R. S., 1964, The present status of insulin antagonists in plasma, Diabetes 13:247–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Berson, S. A., Yalow, R. S., Bauman, A., Rothschild, M. A., and Newerly, K., 1956, Insulin I131 metabolism in human subjects. Demonstration of insulin binding globulin incirculation of insulin treated subjects, J. Clin. Invest. 35:170–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Berthoud, H.-R., and Jeanrenaud, B., 1979, Acute hyperinsulinemia and its reversal by vagotomy after lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus in anesthetized rats, Endocrinology 105:146–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bloom, S. R., Barnes, A. J., Adrian, T. E., and Polak, J. M., 1979, Autoimmunity in diabetes induced by hormonal contaminants of insulin, Lancet 1:14–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Boden, G., Master, R. W., Gordon, S. S., Shuman, C. R., and Owen, O. E., 1980, Monitoring metabolic control in diabetic outpatients with glycosylated hemoglobin, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:357–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bolli, G., Compagnucci, P., Cartechini, M. G., Santeusanio, F., Cirotto, C, Scionti, L., and Brunetti, P., 1980, HbA1 in subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance but normal fasting plasma glucose, Diabetes 29:272–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bradley, W. E., 1980, Diagnosis of urinary bladder dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:323–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Brautigan, D. L., Kerrick, W. G. L,, and Fisher, E. H., 1980, Insulin and glucose-6-phosphate stimulation of Ca2+ uptake by skinned muscle fibers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:936–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bruni, B., Castellazzi, R., Osenda, M., and Turco, G. L., 1973, Serum IgG I125 insulinbinding capacity in long term insulin-treated diabetics, as an indication for monocomponent insulin therapy, Panminerva Med. 15:231–235.Google Scholar
  36. Bunn, H. G., and Briehl, R. W., 1970, The interaction of 2—diphosphoglycerate with various human hemoglobins, J. Clin. Invest. 49:1088–1095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bunn, H. F., Haney, D. M., Gabbay, K. H., and Gallop, P. M., 1975, Further identification of the nature and linkage of the carbohydrate in hemoglobin Alc, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 67:103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Bunn, H. F., Haney, D. N., Kamin, S., Gabbay, K. H., and Gallop, P. M., 1976, The biosynthesis of human hemoglobin Alc. Slow glycosylation of hemoglobin in vivo, J. Clin. Invest. 57:1652–1659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bunn, H. F., Gabbay, K. H., and Gallop, P. M., 1978, The glycosylation of hemoglobin: Relevance to diabetes mellitus, Science 200:21–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Bunn, H. F., Shapiro, R., McManus, M., Garrick, L., McDonald, M. J., Gallop, P. M., and Gabbay, K. H., 1979, Structural heterogeneity of human hemoglobin A due to non-enzymatic glycosylation, J. Biol. Chem. 254:3892–3898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Burns, T. W., Boyd, E. T., Langley, P. E., and Robison, G. A., 1979, Insulin inhibition of lipolysis in human adipoxytes. The role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Diabetes 28:957–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cahill, G. F., Jr., and Soeldner, J. S., 1974, A non-editorial on non-hypoglycemia, N. Engl. J. Med. 291:905–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Campbell, I. W., Ewing, D. J., and Clarke, B. F., 1976, Therapeutic experience with fludrocortisone in diabetic postural hypotension, Br. Med. J. 1:872–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Campbell, I. W., Heading, R. C, Tothill, P., Buist, T. A. S., Ewing, D. J., and Clarke,B. F., 1977, Gastric emptying in diabetic autonomic neuropathy, Gut 18:462–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Campbell, I. W., Heading, R. C, Tothill, P., Buist, T. A. S., Ewing, D. J., and Clark, B. F., 1980, Gastric emptying in diabetic autonomic neuropathy, Horm. Metab. Res. 9(Suppl.):81–86Google Scholar
  46. Campbell, L. V., Kraegen, E. W., Meier, H., and Lazarus, L., 1979, Hormonal responses to insulin infusion in diabetes mellitus, Diabetologia 16:359–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Carpentier, J. L., Gorden, P., Barazzone, P., Freychet, P., LeCam, A., and Orci, L., 1979, Intracellular localization of 125I-labeled insulin in hepatocytes from intact liver, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 26:2803–2807.Google Scholar
  48. Carter-Su, C., Pillion, D. J., and Czech, M. P., 1980, Reconstituted D-glucose transport from adipocyte plasma membrane. Chromatographic resolution of transport activity from membrane glycoproteins using immobilized concanavalin A, Biochemistry 19:2374–2385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cascieri, M. A., Mumford, R. A., and Katzen, H. M., 1979, The role of H2O2 formation in the insulin-like and insulin antagonistic effects on fat cells of ω-aminoalkyl glycosides, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 195:30–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Chance, R. E., Root, M. A., and Galloway, J. A., 1976, The immunogenicity of insulin preparations, Acta Endocrinol (Kbh.) 83:185–195.Google Scholar
  51. Chandramouli, V., Milligan, M., and Carter, J. R., Jr., 1977, Insulin stimulation of glucose transport in adipose cells. An energy-dependent process, Biochemistry 16:1151–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Chen, M., and Robertson, R. P., 1978, Restoration of the acute insulin response by sodium salicylate. A glucose dose-related phenomenon, Diabetes 27:750–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Chen, M., and Robertson, R. P., 1979, Effects of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors on human insulin secretion and carbohydrate tolerance, Prostaglandins 18:557–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cheng, K., Galasko, G., Huang, L., Kellogg, J., and Larner, J., 1980, Studies on the insulin mediator. II. Separation of two antagonistic biologically active materials from fraction II, Diabetes 29:659–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cherrington, A. D., Liljenquist, J. E., Schulman, G. I., Williams, P. E., and Lacy, W. W., 1979, Importance of hypoglycemia-induced glucose production during isolated glucagon deficiency, Am J. Physiol. 5(3):E263–E271.Google Scholar
  56. Chobanian, A. V., Volicer, L., Tifft, C. P., Gavras, H., Liang, C.-S., and Faxon, D., 1979, Mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension in patients with orthostatic hypotension, N. Engl. J. Med. 301:68–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ciaraldi, T. P., and Olefsky, J. M., 1980, Relationship between deactivation of insulinstimulated glucose transport and insulin dissociation in isolated rat adipocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 225:317–330.Google Scholar
  58. Clarke, B. F., Campbell, I. W., and Ewing, D. J., 1980, Prognosis in diabetic autonomic neuropathy, Horm. Metab. Res. 9(Suppl):101–104.Google Scholar
  59. Clarke, W. L., Santiago, J. V., Thomas L., Ehud Ben-Galim, Haymond, M. W., and Cryer, P. E., 1979, Adrenergic mechanisms in recovery from hypoglycemia in man: Adrenergic blockage, Am J. Physiol. 5(2):E147–E152.Google Scholar
  60. Clements, R. S., Jr., 1979, Review: Diabetic neuropathy—new concepts of its etiology, Diabetes 28:604–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Clements, R. S., and Stockard, C. R., 1980, Abnormal sciatic nerve myo-inositol metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Effect of insulin treatment, Diabetes 29:227–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Clements, R. S., Jr., DeJesus, P. V., Jr., and Winegrad, A. I., 1973, Raised plasmamyoinositol levels in uraemia and experimental neuropathy, Lancet 2:1137–1141.Google Scholar
  63. Clements, R. S., Vourganti, B., Kuba, T., Oh, S.-T., and Dainell, B., 1979, Dietary myo-inositol intake and peripheral nerve function in diabetic neuropathy, Metabolism 28(Suppl. I):447–483.Google Scholar
  64. Cole, R. A., Soeldner, J. S., Dunn, P. H., and Bunn, H. F., 1978, A rapid method for the determination of glycosylated hemoglobins using high pressure liquid chromatography, Metabolism 27:289–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Coller, B. S., Frank, R. N., Milton, R. C, and Gralnick, H. R., 1978, Plasma cofactors of platelet function: Correlation with diabetic retinopathy and hemoglobins Ala—c, Ann. Intern. Med. 88:311–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Crofford, O. B., 1975, Time course of termination of the glucose transport action of insulin in adipocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 250:7089–7092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Cryer, P. E., Silverberg, A. B., Santiago, J. V., and Shah, S. D., 1978, Plasma catecholamines in diabetes: The syndromes of hypoadrenergic and hyperadrenergic postural hypotension, Am. J. Med. 64:407–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Cuatrecasas, P., 1972, Properties of the insulin receptor isolated from liver and fat cell membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 247:1980–1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Cushman, S. W., and Wardzala, L. J., 1980, Potential mechanism of insulin action on glucose transport in the isolated rat adipose cell. Apparent translocation of intracellular transport systems to the plasma membrane, J. Biol. Chem. 255:4758–4762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Czech, M. P., 1976, Current status of the thiol redox model for the regulation of hexose transport by insulin, J. Cell. Physiol. 89:661–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Czech, M. P., 1980, Insulin action and the regulation of hexose transport, Diabetes 29:339–409.Google Scholar
  72. Dandona, P., Freedman, D., and Moorhead, J. F., 1979, Glycosylated hemoglobin in chronic renal failure, Br. Med. J. 1:1183–1184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Davies, P. J. A., Davies, D. R., Levitzki, A., Maxfield, F. R., Milhaud, P., Willingham, M. C, and Pastan, I. H., 1980, Transglutaminase is essential in receptor mediated endocytosis of α2-macroglobulin and polypeptide hormones, Nature 283:162–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Davis, J. E., McDonald, J. M., and Jarrett, L., 1978, A high performance liquid chromatography method for hemoglobin Alc, Diabetes 27:102–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Davis, J. L., Lewis, S. B., Gerich, J. E., Kaplan, R. A., Schultz, T. A., and Wallin, J. D., 1977, Peripheral diabetic neuropathy treated with amitriptyline and fluphenazine, J.A.M.A. 238:2291–2292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Day, J. F., Thorpe, S. R., and Baynes J. W., 1979, Non-enzymatically glycosylated albumin, in vitro preparation and isolation from normal human serum, J. Biol. Chem. 254:595–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Day, J. F., Ingebretsen, C. G., Ingebretsen, W. R., Baynes, J. W., and Thorpe, R. S., 1980, Non-enzymatic glucosylation of serum proteins and hemoglobin: Response to changes of blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, Diabetes 29:524–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Deacon, S. P., and Barnett, D., 1976, Comparison of atenolol and propranolol during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, Br. Med. J. 2:272–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. DeFronzo, R. A., Andres, R., Bledsoe, T. A., Boden, G., Faloona, G. A., and Tobin, J. D., 1977, A test of the hypothesis that the rate of fall in glucose concentration triggers counterregulatory homonal responses in man, Diabetes 26:445–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. DeFronzo, R. A., Hendler, R., and Christensen, N., 1980, Stimulation of counterregu latory hormonal responses in diabetic man by a fall in glucose concentration, Diabetes 29:125–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. de Haën, C, Muchmore, D. B., and Little, S. A., 1980, Stimulation of intracellular H2O2 production in rat epididymal adipocytes by insulin, insulin-fragments and other hormones and growth factors with insulin-like activities, in: Insulin: Chemistry, Structure and Function of Insulin and Related Hormones (D. Brandenburg and A. Wollmer, eds.), pp. 461–468, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  82. De Meyts, P., 1980, Insulin receptors: Experimental validation of the negative cooperativity concept, Horm. Cell. Regulat. 40:107–121.Google Scholar
  83. De Meyts, P., Roth, J., Neville, D. M., Jr., Gavin, J. R. III, and Lesniak, M. A., 1973, Insulin interaction with its receptors: Experimental evidence for negative cooperativity, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 55:154–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. De Meyts, P., Bianco, A. R., and Roth, J., 1976, Site-site interaction among insulin receptors. Characterization of the negative cooperativity, J. Biol. Chem. 251:1877–1888.Google Scholar
  85. De Meyts, P., Van Obberghen, E., Roth, J. Wollmer, A., and Brandenburg, D., 1978, Mapping of the residues responsible for the negative cooperativity of the receptorbinding region of insulin, Nature 273:504–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. De Pirro, R., Fusco, A., Lauro, R., Testa, I., Ferreti, F., and De Martinis, C, 1980, Erythrocyte insulin receptors in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Diabetes 29:96–99.Google Scholar
  87. Devlin, J. G., and Brien, T. G., 1965, Relationship between differential antibody binding capacity and clinical requirements of beef and pork insulin, Metabolism 14:1034–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Dixon, K., Exon, P. D., and Malins, J. M., 1975, Insulin antibodies and the control of diabetes, Q. J. Med. 176:543–553.Google Scholar
  89. Dolhofer, R., and Wieland, D. H., 1980, Increased glycosylation of serum albumin in diabetes mellitus, Diabetes 29:417–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Donner, D. B., 1980, Regulation of insulin binding to isolated hepatocytes: Correction for bound hormone fragments linearizes Scatchard plots, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:3176–3180.Google Scholar
  91. Donnor, D. B., and Corin, R. E., 1980, Formation of a receptor state from which insulin dissociates slowly in hepatic cells and plasma membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 255:9005–9008.Google Scholar
  92. Drenick, E. J., Alvarez, L. C., Tamasi, G. C, and Brickman, A. S., 1972, Resistance to symptomatic insulin reactions after fasting, J. Clin. Invest. 51:2757–2762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Duchen, L. W., Anjorin, A., Watkins, P. J., and Mackay, J. D., 1980, Pathology of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:301–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Duckworth, W. C., Solomon, S., and Kitabchi, A. E., 1972, Effects of chronic sulfonylurea therapy on plasma insulin and proinsulin levels, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 35:585–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Dunn, P. J., Cole, R. A., Soeldner, J. S., and Gleason, R. E., 1979, Reproducibility of hemoglobin Alc and sensitivity to various degrees of glucose intolerance, Ann. Intern. Med. 91:390–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Eigler, N., Sacca, L., and Sherwin, R. S., 1979, Synergistic interactions of physiologic increments of glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol in the dog, J. Clin. Invest. 63:114–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Elahi, D., Andersen, D. K., Brown, J. C., Debas, H. T., Hershcopf, R. J., Raizes, G. S., Tobin, J. D., and Andres, R., 1979, Pancreatic α and β-cell responses to GIP infusion in normal man, Am. J. Physiol. 237:E185–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Eng. J., Lee, L., and Yalow, R. S., 1980, Influence of the age of erythrocytes on their insulin receptors, Diabetes 29:164–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ewing, D. J., Burt, A. A., Williams, I. R., Campbell, I. W., and Clarke, B. F., 1976, Peripheral motor nerve function in diabetic autonomic neuropathy, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 39:453–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Ewing, D. J. Campbell, I. W., Murray, A., Neilson, J. M. M., and Clarke, B. F., 1978, Immediate heart-rate-response to standing: Simple test for autonomic neuropathy in diabetes, Br. Med. J. 1:145–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Faerman, I., Faccio, E., Milei, J., Nunez, R., Jadzinsky, M., Fox, D., and Rapaport, M., 1977, Autonomic neuropathy and painless myocardial infarction in diabetic patients: Histologic evidence of their relationship, Diabetes 26:1147–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Feinglos, M. N., and Lebovitz, H. E., 1978, Sulfonylureas increase the number of insulin receptors, Nature 276:184–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Feldman, M., Corbett, D. B., Ramsey, E. J., Walsh, J. H., and Richardson, C. T., 1979, Abnormal gastric function in longstanding insulin-dependent diabetic patients, Gastroenterology 77:12–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Fineberg, S. E., and Schneider, S. H., 1980, Glipizide versus tolbutamide, an open trial, Diabetologia 18:49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Fink, G., Cresto, J. C. Gutman, R. A., Lavine, R. L., Rubenstein, A. H., and Recant, L., 1974, Plasma proinsulin-like material in insulin treated diabetics, Horm. Metab. Res. 6:439–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Fitzgibbons, J. F., Koler, R. D., and Jones, R. T., 1976, Red cell age related changes of hemoglobins Ala+b and Alc in normal and diabetic subjects, J. Clin. Invest. 58:820–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Flückiger, R., and Winterhalter, K. H., 1976, In vitro synthesis of hemoglobin Alc, FEBS Lett. 71:356–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Fox, S., and Behar, J., 1980, Pathogenesis of diabetic gastroparesis: A pharmacologic study, Gastroenterology 78:757–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Fraser, D. M., Campbell, I. W., Ewing, D. J., Murray, A., Neilson, J. M. M., and Clarke, B. F., 1977a, Peripheral and autonomic nerve function in newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, Diabetes 26:546–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Fraser, D. M., Campbell, I. W., and Miller, H. C., 1977b, Peripheral and autonomic neuropathy after treatment with perhexiline maleate, Br. Med. J. 2:675–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Freinkel, N., and Goodner, C. J., 1958, Metabolism of insulin by human placental tissue, J. Clin. Invest. 37:895–899.Google Scholar
  112. Frimodt-moller, C., and Mortesen, S., 1980, Treatment of diabetic cytopathy, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:327–328.Google Scholar
  113. Fujimoto, W. Y., Ensinck, J. W., Merchant, F. W., Williams, R. H., Smith, P. H., and Johnson, D. G., 1978, Stimulation by gastric inhibitory polypeptide of insulin and glucagon secretion by rat islet cultures, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 157:89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Gabbay, K. H., 1973a, The sorbitol pathway and the complications of diabetes, N. Engl. J.Med. 288:831–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Gabbay, K. H. 1973b, Role of sorbitol pathway in neuropathy, in: Vascular and Neurological Changes in Early Diabetes. Advances in Metabolic Disorders (R. A. Camerini-Davalos and H. S. Cole eds.), pp. 417–429, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Gabbay, K. H., Hasty, K., Breslow, J. Ellison, R. C., Bunn, H. F., and Gallop, P. M., 1977, Glycosylated hemoglobins and long-term blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus, J. Clin. Endocnnol. Metab. 44:859–864.Google Scholar
  117. Gabbay, K. H., Spack, N., Loo, S., Hirsch, H. J., and Ackil, A. A., 1979a, Aldose reductase inhibition: Studies with alrestatin, Metabolism 28(Suppl.I):471–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Gabbay, K. H., Sosenko, J. M., Banuchi, G. A., Mininsohn, M. J., and Flückiger, R., 1979b, Glycosylated hemoglobins: Increased glycosylation of hemoglobin A in diabetic patients, Diabetes 28:337–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Gale, E. A. M., and Tattersall, R. B., 1979, Unrecognised and nocturnal hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated diabetics, Lancet 1:1049–1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Gambhir, K. K., Archer, J. A., and Garter, L., 1977, Insulin radioreceptor assay for human erythrocytes, Clin. Chem. 23:1590–1595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Gambhir, K. K., Archer, J. A., and Bradley, C. J., 1978, Characterization of human erythrocyte insulin receptors, Diabetes 27:701–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Gammeltoft, S., and Gliemann, J., 1973, Binding and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin by isolated rat fat cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 320:16–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Gammeltoft, S., Kristensen, L. O., and Sestoft, L., 1978, Insulin receptors in isolated rat hepatocytes. Reassessment of binding properties and observations on the inactivation of insulin at 37°C, J. Biol. Chem. 253:8406–8413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Gauthier, C., Vranic, M., and Hetenyi, G., Jr., 1980, Importance of glucagon in regulatory rather than emergency responses to hypoglycemia, Am J. Physiol. l:E131–E140.Google Scholar
  125. Gavin, J. R. III, Roth, J., Neville, D. M., Jr., De Meyts, P., and Buell, D. N., 1974, Insulin-dependent regulation of insulin receptor concentrations: A direct demonstration in cell culture, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71:84–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Gerich, J. E., Langlois, M., Noacco, C., Karam, J. H., and Forsham, P. H., 1973, Lack of glucagon response to hypoglycemia in diabetes: Evidence for an intristic pancreatic alpha cell defect, Science 182:171–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Gerich, J. E., Lorenzi, M., Tsalikian, E., and Karam, J. H., 1976, Studies on the mechanism of epinephrine-induced hyperglycemia in man, Diabetes 25:65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Gerich, J., Davis, J., Lorenzi, M., Rizza, R., Bohannon, N., Karam, J., Lewis, S., Kaplan, R., Schultz, T., and Cryer, P., 1979, Hormonal mechanisms of recovery from insulin-induced hypoglycemia in man, Am J. Physiol. 5(4):E380–385.Google Scholar
  129. Gerich, J., Cryer, P., and Rizza, R., 1980, Hormonal mechanisms in acute glucose counterregulation: The relative roles of glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, and cortisol, Metabolism 29:1164–1175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Ginsberg, B. H., Kahn, C. R., Roth, J., and De Meyts, P., 1976, Insulin-induced dissociation of its receptor into subunits: Possible molecular concomitant of negative cooperativity, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 73:1068–1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Giugliano, D., Torella, R., Siniscalchi, N., Improta, L., and D’Onofrio, F., 1978, The effects of acetylsalicylic acid on insulin response to glucose and arginine in normal man, Diabetologia 14:359–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Giugliano, D., Torella, R., Sgambato, S., and D’Onofrio, F., 1979a, Effects of α- and β-adrenergic inhibition and somatostatin on plasma glucose, free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone responses to prostaglandin Et in man, J. Clin. Endrocrinol. Metab. 48:302–308.Google Scholar
  133. Giugliano, D., Torella, R., Sgambato, S., and D’’Onofrio, F., 1979b, Acetylsalicylic acid restores acute insulin response reduced by furosemide in man, Diabetes 28:841–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Given, D. B., Mako, M. E., Tager, H., Baldwin, D., Markese, J., Rubenstein, A. H., Olefsky, J., Kobayashi, M., Kolterman, O., and Poucher, R., 1980, Diabetes due to secretion of abnormal insulin, N. Engl. J. Med. 302:129–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Gliemann, J., Gammeltoft, S., and Vinten, J., 1975, Time course of insulin receptor binding and insulin-induced lipogenesis in isolated rat fat cells, J. Biol. Chem. 250:3368–3374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Goldstein, D. E., Peth, S. B., England, J. D., Hess, R. L., and Dacosta, J., 1980, Effects of acute changes in blood glucose in HbAlc, Diabetes 29:623–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Gonen, B. Rubenstein, A. H., Rochman, H., Tanega, S. P., and Horwitz, D. L., 1977, Hemoglobin A1: An indicator of the metabolic control of diabetic patients, Lancet 2:734–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Gonen, B., Goldman, J., Baldwin, D., Goldberg, R. B., Ryan, W. G., Blix, P. M., Schanzlin, D., Fritz, K. J., and Rubenstein, A. H., 1979, Metabolic control of diabetic patients, Diabetes 28:749–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Goodner, G. J., Walike, B. C., Koerker, D. J., Ensinck, J. W., Brown, A. C., Chideckel, E. W., Palmer, J., and Kalnasy, L., 1977, Insulin, glucagon, and glucose exhibit synchronous, sustained oscillations in fasting monkeys, Science 195:177–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Gorden, P., Carpentier, J.-L., Freychet, P., and Orci, L., 1980, Morphologic probes of polypeptide hormone receptor interactions, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 28:811–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Graf, R. J., Halter, J. B., and Porte, D., Jr., 1978, Glycosylated hemoglobin in normal subjects and subjects with maturity onset diabetes. Evidence for a saturable system in man, Diabetes 27:834–839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Graf, R. J., Halter, J. B., Halar, E., and Porte, D., Jr., 1979, Nerve conduction abnormalities in untreated maturity onset diabetes: Relation to levels of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, Ann. Intern. Med. 90:298–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Graf, R. J., Halter, J. B., Pfeifer, M. A., Brozovich, F., Halar, E., and Porte, D., Jr., 1981, Glycemic control and nerve conduction abnormalities in diabetics, Ann. Intern. Med. 94:307–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Greene, D. A., DeJesus, P. V., Jr., and Winegrad, A. I., 1975, Effects of insulin and dietary myoinositol and impaired peripheral motor nerve conduction velocity in acute streptozotocin diabetes, J. Clin. Invest. 55:1326–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Gregersen, G., Bursting, H., Theil, P., and Servo, C., 1978, Myoinositol and function of peripheral nerves in human diabetes. A controlled clinical trial, Acta Neurol. Scand. 58:241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Grill, V., Actamson, U., Rundfeldt, M., Andersson, S., and Cerasi, E., 1979, Glucose memory of pancreatic A and A2 cells. Evidence for common time-dependent actions of glucose on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas, J. Clin. Invest. 64:700–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Haase, B. A., Standaert, M. L., and Pollet, R. J., 1979, Physical characterization of the insulin receptor of the human IM-9 lymphoblastoid cell by preparative sedimentation equilibrium Clin. Res. 27:756A.Google Scholar
  148. Hague, R., Scarpello, J., Sladen, G., and Gullen, D., 1978, Autonomic function tests in diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Metab. 4:227–231.Google Scholar
  149. Halar, E., and Venkatesh, B., 1976, Nerve conduction velocity measurements: Improved accuracy using superimposed response waves, Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 57:451–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Halter, J. B., and Pflug, A. E., 1980, Effect of sympathetic blockade by spinal anesthesia on pancreatic islet function in man, Am. J. Physiol. 239:E150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Halter, J. B., and Porte, D., Jr., 1978, Mechanisms of impaired acute insulin release in adult onset diabetes: Studies with isoproterenol and secretin, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 46:952–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Halter, J. B., and Porte, D., Jr., 1980, Current concepts of insulin secretion in diabetes mellitus, in: Diabetes Mellitus, Volume V (H. Rifkin and P. Raskin, eds.), pp. 33–42, Robert J. Brady, Bowie, Maryland.Google Scholar
  153. Halter, J. B., Graf, R. J., and Porte, D., Jr., 1979, Potentiation of insulin secretory responses by plasma glucose levels in man: Evidence that hyperglycemia in diabetes compensates for impaired glucose potentiation, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 48:946–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Haney, D. N., and Bunn, H. F., 1976, Glycosylation of hemoglobin in vitro: Affinity labeling of hemoglobin by glucose-6-phosphate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:3534–3538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Hansen, S., and Ballantyne, J. P., 1977, Axonal dysfunction in the neuropathology of diabetes mellitus, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 40:555–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Harmon, J. T., Kahn, C. R., Kempner, E. S., and Schlegel, W., 1980, Characterization of the insulin receptor in its membrane environment by radiation inactivation, J. Biol. Chem. 255:3412–3419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Heinrich, J., Pilch, P. F., and Czech, M. P., 1980, Purification of the adipocyte insulin receptor by immunoaffinity chromatography, J. Biol. Chem. 255:1732–1737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Herp, L., Kasemin, H., and Kieling, F., 1968, Insulinbindende antikorper und insulinbedarf bei diabetikein, Klin. Wochenschr. 46:376–382.Google Scholar
  159. Hilsted, J., Galbo, H., and Christensen, N. J., 1980, Impaired responses of catecholamines, growth hormone, and cortisol to graded exercise in diabetic autonomic neuropathy, Diabetes 29:257–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Holman, R. R., and Turner, R. C., 1979, Maintenance of basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in maturity-onset diabetes, Diabetes 28:227–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Hope-Gill, H. F., and Nanda, V., 1979, Stimulation of calcium ATP-ase by insulin, glucagon, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in Triton X-100 extracts of purified rat liver plasma membrane, Horm. Metab. Res. 11:698–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Hreidarsson, A. B., 1979, Pupil motility in long-term diabetes, Diabetologia 17:145–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Hume, L., Ewing, D. J., Campbell, I. W., Rueben, S. R., and Clarke, B. F., 1979, Noninvasive assessment of left ventricular response to Valsalva manoeuvre in normal and diabetic subjects using praecordial accelerocardiography, Br. Heart J. 41:199–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Hume, L., Ewing, D. J., Campbell, I. W., Rueben, S. R., and Clarke, B. F., 1980, Provocation of postural hypotension by nitroglycerin in diabetic autonomic neuropathy? Diabetes Care 3:27–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Inoue, S., Bray, G. A., and Mullen, Y. S., 1978, Transplantation of pancreatic α-cells prevents development of hypothalamic obesity in rats, Am J. Physiol. 235:E266–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Irvine, W. J., Al-Khateeb, S. F., Dimario, U., Feek, C. M., Grey, R. S., Edmond, B., and Duncan L. J. P., 1977, Soluble immune complexes in the sera of newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetics and in treated diabetics, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 30:16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Jacobs, S., and Cuatrecasas, P., 1976, The mobile receptor hypothesis and “cooperativity” of hormone binding, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 433:482–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Jacobs, S., Hazum, E., Schechter, Y., and Cuatrecasas, P., 1979, Insulin receptor: Covalent labeling and identification of subunits, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:4918–4921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Jacobs, S., Hazum, E., and Cuatrecasas, P., 1980, The subunit structure of rat liver insulin receptor. Antibodies directed against the insulin-binding subunit, J. Biol. Chem. 255:6937–6940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Jakobsen, J., 1976a, Axonal dwindling in early experimental diabetes. I. A. study of cross sectional nerves, Diabetologia 12:539–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Jakobsen, J., 1976b, Axonal dwindling in early experimental diabetes. II. A study of isolated nerve fibers, Diabetologia 12:547–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Jakobsen, J., 1978, Peripheral nerves in early experimental diabetes: Expansion of the endoneurial space as a cause of increased water content, Diabetologia 14:113–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Jakobsen, J., 1979, Early and preventable changes of peripheral nerve structure and function in insulin-deficient diabetic rats, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 42:509–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Jakobsen, J., 1980, Early Peripheral nerve abnormalities in diabetes: An animal model, Horm. Metab. Res. 9(Suppl.):30–38.Google Scholar
  175. Jarett, L., and Seals, J. R., 1979, Pyruvate dehydrogenase activation in adipocyte mitochondria by an insulin-generated mediator from muscle, Science 206:1407–1408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Jarett, L., and Smith, R. M., 1979, Effect of cytochalasin B and D on groups of insulin receptors and on insulin action in rat adipocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 63:571–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Javid, J., Pettis, P. K., Koenig, R. J., and Cerami, A., 1978, Immunologic characterization and quantification of haemoglobin Alc, Br. J. Haematol. 38:329–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Jefferys, J. G. R., Palmano, K. P., Sharma, A. K., and Thomas, P. K., 1978, Influence of dietary myoinositol on nerve conduction and inositol phospholipids in normal and diabetic rats, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 41:333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Jensen, S. G., Hagen, C., Froland, A., and Pedersen, P. B., 1979, Sexual function and pituitary axis in insulin treated diabetic men, Acta Med. Scand. 624(Suppl):65–68.Google Scholar
  180. Kahn, C. R., 1980, The role of insulin receptor in states of altered insulin action, in: Proceedings, 10th Congress of the International Diabetes Federation (W. K. Walkhausl, ed.), pp. 81–87, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  181. Kahn, C. R., Freychet, P., Roth, J., and Neville, D. M., Jr., 1974, Quantitative aspects of the insulin-receptor interaction in liver plasma membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 249:2249–2257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Kahn, C. R., Baird, K. L., Jarrett, D. B., and Flier, J. S., 1978, Direct demonstration that receptor crosslinking or aggregation is important in insulin action, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:4209–4213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Karacan, I., 1980, Diagnosis of erectile impotence in diabetes mellitus: An objective and specific method, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:334–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Karacan, I., Salis, P. J., Ware, J. C., Dervent, B., Williams, R. L., Scott, F. B., Atiia, S. L., and Beutler, L. E., 1978a, Nocturnal penile tumescence and diagnosis in diabetic impotence, Am. J. Psychiatry 135:191–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Karacan, I., Ware, C., Dervent, B., Altinel, A., Thornby, J. I., Williams, R. L., Kaya, N., and Scott, F. B., 1978b, Impotence and blood pressure in the flaccid penis: Relationship to nocturnal penile tumescence, Sleep 1:125–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Kochar, M. S., Itskovitz, H. D., and Albers, J. W., 1979, Treatment of orthostatic hypotension with indomethacin, Am. Heart J. 98:271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Koenig, R. J., and Cerami, A., 1975, Synthesis of hemoglobin Alc in normal and diabetic mice: Potential model of basement membrane thickening, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:3687–3791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Koenig, R. J., Aranjo, D. C., and Cerami, A., 1976a, Increased hemoglobin Alc in diabetic mice, Diabetes 25:1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Koenig, P. S., Peterson, C. M., Jones, R. L., Saudek, C., Lehrman, M., and Cerami, A., 1976b, Correlation of glucose regulation and hemoglobin Alc in diabetes mellitus, N. Engl. J. Med. 295:417–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Koenig, R. J., Peterson, C. M., Kilo, C., Cerami, A., and Williamson, J. R., 1976c, Hemoglobin Alc as an indicator of the degree of glucose intolerance in diabetes, Diabetes 25:230–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Koerker, D. T., Goodner, C. T., Hansen, B. W., Brown, A. C., and Rubenstein, A. H., 1978, Synchronous, sustained oscillation of C-peptide and insulin in the plasma of fasting monkeys, Endrocrinology 102:1649–1652.Google Scholar
  192. Kolterman, O. G., Insel, J., Saekow, M., and Olefsky, J. M., 1980, Mechanisms of insulin resistance in human obesity. Evidence for receptor and post-receptor defects, J. Clin. Invest. 65:1272–1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Kono, T., Robinson R. W., Sarver, J. A., Vega, J. V., and Pointer, R. H., 1977, Action of insulin in fat cells. Effects of low temperature, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and respiratory inhibitors, J. Biol. Chem. 252:2226–2233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Kurtz, A. B., Matthews, J. A., Mustaffa, B. E., Daggett, P. R. and Nabarro, J. D. N., 1980, Decrease of antibodies to insulin, pro-insulin and contaminating hormones after changing treatment from conventional beef to purified pork insulin, Diabetologia 18:147–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Lager, I., Blohme, G., and Smith, U., 1979, Effect of cardioselective and nonselective β-blockade on the hypoglycaemic response in insulin-dependent diabetics, Lancet 1:458–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Lancet, 1977, Editorial: Beta blockers for diabetics, Lancet 1:843.Google Scholar
  197. Lande, R., Joria, J., Thibult, N., Soria, C., Eschwege, E., and Tchobroutsky, G., 1977, Glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations and clinitest results in insulin-dependent diabetes, Lancet 2:1156–1157.Google Scholar
  198. Lang, D. A., Matthews, D. R., Peto, J., and Turner, R. C., 1979, Cyclic oscillations of basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in human beings, N. Engl. J. Med. 301:1023–1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Larner, J., Galasko, G., Cheng, K., De Paoli-Roach, A. A., Huang, L., Daggy, P., and Kellogg, J., 1979, Generation by insulin of a chemical mediator that controls protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, Science 206:1408–1410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Leclercq-Meyer, V., Herchuelz, A., Valverde, L, Couturier, E. Marchand, J., and Malaisse, W. J., 1980, Mode of action of clonidine upon islet function. Dissociated effects upon the time course and magnitude of insulin release, Diabetes 29:193–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Lerner, R. L., 1979, Augmented insulin responses to glucose after secretin priming in diabetic subjects, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 48:462–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Lilavivathana, U., Brodows, R. G., Woolf, P. D., and Campbell, R. G., 1979, Counterregulatory hormonal responses to rapid glucose lowering in diabetic man, Diabetes 28:873–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Lind, T., and Cheyne, G. A., 1979, Effect of normal pregnancy upon the glycosylated hemoglobins, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 86:210–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Lithner, F., 1975, Treatment of diabetes mellitus with monocomponent insulins, Opinscula Med. 20:249–254.Google Scholar
  205. Little, S. A., and de Haën, C., 1980, Effects of hydrogen peroxide on basal and hormonestimulated lipolysis in perifused rat fat cells in relation to the mechanism of action of insulin, J. Biol. Chem. 255:10888–10895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Logie, A. W., and Stowers, J. M., 1976, Hazards of monocomponent insulin, Br. Med. J. 1:879–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Louis-Sylvestre, J., 1978, Relationship between two stages of prandial insulin release in rats, Am. J. Physiol. 235:E103–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Ludvigson, M. A., and Sorenson, R. L., 1980a, Immunohistochemical localization of aldose reductase. I. Enzyme purification and antibody preparation—localization in peripheral nerve, artery, and testis, Diabetes 29:438–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Ludvigson, M. A., and Sorenson, R. L., 1980b, Immunohistochemical localization of aldose reductase. II. Rat eye and kidney, Diabetes 29:450–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Ludvigsson, J., and Heding, L. G., 1976, C-peptide in children with juvenile diabetes, Diabetologia 12:627–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Mackay, J. D., Hayakawa, H., and Watkin, P. J., 1978, Cardiovascular effects of insulin: Plasma volume changes in diabetics, Diabetologia 15:453–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Malayelada, J. R., Rees, W. D. W. Mazzotta, L. J., and Go, V. L. W., 1980, Gastric motor abnormalities in diabetic and postvagotomy gastroparesis: Effect of metoclopramide and bethanechol, Gastroenterology 78:286–293.Google Scholar
  213. Marchmont, R. J., and Houslay, M. D., 1980, Insulin triggers the cyclic AMP dependent activation and phosphorylation of a peripheral plasma membrane cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, Nature 286:904–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Massagué, J., and Czech, M. P., 1980, Multiple redox forms of the insulin receptor in native liver membranes, Diabetes 29:945–947.Google Scholar
  215. Mastri, A. R., 1980, Neuropathology of diabetic neurogenic bladder, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:316–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Maturo, J. M., III, and Hollenberg, M. D., 1978, Insulin receptor: Interaction with nonreceptor glycoprotein from liver cell membranes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:3070–3074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Maturo, J. M. III, and Hollenberg, M. D., 1979, Insulin receptors in transformed fibroblasts and in adipoxytes: A comparative study, Can. J. Biochem. 57:497–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. May, J. M., and de Haën, C., 1979a, Insulin-stimulated intracellular hydrogen peroxide production in rat epididymal fat cells, J. Biol. Chem. 254:2214–2220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. May, J. M., and de Haën, C., 1979b, The insulin-like effect of hydrogen peroxide on pathways of lipid synthesis in rat adipocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 254:9017–9021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. McCann, V. J., and Davis, R. E., 1978, Serum pyridoxal concentrations in patients with diabetic neuropathy, Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 8:259–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. McDonald, M. J., Shapiro, R., Bleichman, M., Solway, J., and Bunn, H. F., 1978, Glycosylated minor components of human adult hemoglobin, J. Biol. Chem. 253:2327–2332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. McDonald, M. J., Bleichman, M., and Bunn, H. F., 1979, Functional properties of the glycosylated minor components of human adult hemoglobin, J. Biol. Chem. 254:702–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. McFarland, K. F., Catalano, E. W., Day, J. F., Thorpe, S. R., and Baynes, J. W., 1979, Nonenzymatic glycosylation of serum proteins in diabetes mellitus, Diabetes 28:1011–1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. McMillan, D. E., Utterback, N. G., and Lapuma, J., 1978, Reduced erythrocyte deformability in diabetes, Diabetes 27:895–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Metz, S. A., Halter, J. B., and Robertson, R. P., 1978, Induction of defective insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance by clonidine. Selective stimulation of metabolic alpha-adrenergic pathways, Diabetes 27:554–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Metz, S. A., Halter, J. B., and Robertson, R. P., 1979, Paradoxical inhibition of insulin secretion by glucose in human diabetes mellitus, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 48:827–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Miller, J. A., Gravallese, E., and Bunn, H. F., 1980, Non-enzymatic glycosylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins, J. Clin. Invest. 65:896–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Molitoris, B. A., Karl, I. E., and Doughaday, W. H., 1980, Concentration of myoinositol in selective muscle of the rat occurs without active transport, J. Clin. Invest. 65:783–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Morgan, C. R., Carpenter, A. M., and Lazarow, A., 1965, Effect of insulin antibodies on pancreatic islet insulin and beta cell granule content, Anat. Rec. 153:49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Moss, A. J., Glaser, W., and Topol, E., 1980, Atrial tachypacing in the treatment of a patient with primary orthostatic hypotension, N. Engl. J. Med. 302:1456–1457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Mukherjee, S. P., and Lynn, W. S., 1977, Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in adipocyte plasma membrane its activation by insulin. Possible role in the hormone’s effect on adenylate cyclase and the hexose monophosphate shunt, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 184:69–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Mukherjee, S. P., Lane, R. H., and Lynn, W. S., 1978, Endogenous hydrogen peroxide and peroxidative metabolism in adipocytes in response to insulin and sulfhydryl reagents, Biochem. Pharmacol. 27:2589–2594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Newman, R. J., 1976, Comparison of propranolol, metoprolol, and acebutolol on insulininduced hypoglycaemia, Br. Med. J. 2:447–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Oakley, N. W., 1976, Effect of “fractional” insulins on total plasma insulin binding capacity and insulin requirement in severe diabetes, Lancet 1:994–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Olefsky, J. M., 1976, Decreased insulin binding to adipocytes and circulating monocytes from obese subjects, J. Clin. Invest. 57:1165–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Olefsky, J. M., and Kolterman, O. G., 1980, Relationship between insulin receptors, insulin resistance and sulfonylureas in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, in: Proceedings, 10th Congress of the International Diabetes Federation (W. K. Waldhausl, ed.), pp. 104–108, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  237. Olefsky, J. M., and Reaven, G. M., 1976, Effects of sulfonylurea therapy on insulin binding to mononuclear leukocytes of diabetic patients, Am. J. Med. 60:89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Olefsky, J. M., Kobayashi, M., and Chang, H., 1979, Interactions between insulin and its receptor after the initial binding event. Functional heterogeneity and relationships to insulin degradation, Diabetes 28:460–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Olefsky, J., Saekow, M., Tager, H., and Rubenstein, A. H., 1980, Characterization of a mutant human insulin species, J. Biol. Chem. 255:6098–6105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Ostman, J., Arner, P., Groth, G.-G., Gunnarsson, R., Heding, L., and Lundgren, G., 1980, Plasma C-peptide and serum insulin antibodies in diabetic patients receiving pancreatic transplants, Diabetologia 19:25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Owen, O. E., Morgan, A. P., Kemp, H. G., Sullivan J. M., Herrera, M. G., and Cahill, G. F., Jr., 1967, Brain metabolism during fasting, J. Clin. Invest. 46:1589–1595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Papoz, L., Job, D., Eschwege, E., Aboulker, J. P., Cubeau, J., Pequignot, G., Rathery, M., and Rosselin, G., 1978, Effect of oral hypoglycaemic drugs on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in borderline diabetic patients, Diabetologia 15:373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Pecoraro, R. E., Graf, R. J., Halter, J. B., and Porte, D., Jr., 1979, Comparison of a colorimetric assay for glycosylated hemoglobin with ion-exchange chromatography, Diabetes 28:1120–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Pederson, R. A., and Brown, J. C., 1978, Interaction of gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucose, and arginine on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas, Endocrinology 103:610–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Pershadsingh, H. A., and McDonald, J. M., 1979, Direct addition of insulin inhibits a high affinity Ca2+-ATPase in isolated adipocyte plasma membranes, Nature 281:495–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Peterson, C. M., Jones, R. L., Koenig, R. J., Melvin, E. T., and Lehrman, M. L., 1977a, Reversible hematologic sequelae of diabetes mellitus, Ann. Intern. Med. 86:425–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Peterson, C. M., Koenig, R. J., Jones, R. L. Saudek, C. D., and Cerami, A., 1977b, Correlation of serum triglyceride levels and hemoglobin Alc concentrations in diabetes mellitus, Diabetes 26:507–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Peterson, C. M., Jones, R. L., Esterly, J. A., Wantz, G. E., and Jackson, R. L., 1980, Changes in basement membrane thickening and pulse volume concomitant with improved glucose control and exercise in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Care 3:586–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Peterson, M. J., Sarges, R., Aldingu, C. E., and MacDonald, D. P., 1979, CP-45,634: A novel aldose reductase inhibitor that inhibits polyol pathway activity in diabetic and galactosemic rats, Metabolism 28(Suppl. I):456–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Pfeifer, M. A., Brodsky, J., and Cook, D. L., 1980a, Sensitive methods for evaluating autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, Diabetes 29:79A.Google Scholar
  251. Pfeifer, M. A., Halter, J. B., Graf, R., and Porte, D., Jr., 1980b, Potentiation of insulin secretion to nonglucose stimuli in normal man by tolbutamide, Diabetes 29:335–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Pietri, A., Ehle, A. L., and Raskin, P., 1980, Changes in nerve conduction velocity after six weeks of glucoregulation with portable insulin infusion pumps, Diabetes 29:668–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Pilch, P. F., and Czec-, M. P., 1979, Interaction of cross-linking agents with the insulin effector system of isolated fat cells. Covalent linkage of 125I-insulin to a plasma membrane receptor of 140,000 daltons, J. Biol. Chem. 254:3375–3381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Pilch, P. F., and Czech, M. P., 1980, The subunit structure of the high affinity insulin receptor. Evidence for a disulfide-linked receptor complex in fat cell and liver plasma membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 255:1722–1731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Pilch, P. F., Thompson, P. A., and Czech, M. P., 1980, Coordinate modulation of D-glucose transport activity and bilayer fluidity in plasma membranes derived from control and insulin-treated adipocytes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:915–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Pollet, R. J., Standaert, M. L., and Haase, B. A., 1977, Insulin binding to human lymphocyte receptors: Evaluation of the negative cooperativity model, J. Biol. Chem. 252:5828–5834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Porte, D., Jr., Graf, R. J., Halter, J. B., Pfeifer, M. A., and Halar, E., 1981, Diabetic neuropathy and plasma glucose control, Am. J. Med. 70:195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Prince, M. J., and Olefsky, J. M., 1980, Direct in vivo effect of a sulfonylurea to increase human fibroblast insulin receptors, J. Clin. Invest. 66:608–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Rahbar, S., Blumenfeld, D., and Ranney, H. M., 1969, Studies of an unusual hemoglobin in patients with diabetes mellitus, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 36:838–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Reaven, G. M., and Olefsky, J. M., 1977, Relationship between heterogeneity of insulin responses and insulin resistance in normal subjects and patients with chemical diabetes, Diabetologia 13:201–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Reddi, A. S., 1978, Diabetic microangiopathy. I. Current status of the chemistry and metabolism of the glomerular basement membrane, Metabolism 27:107–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Reeves, W. G., Allen, B. R., and Tattersall, R. B., 1980, Insulin-induced lipoatrophy: Evidence of an immune pathogenesis, Br. Med. J. 280:1500–1503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Rizza, R. A., Cryer, P. E., and Gerich, J. E., 1979, Role of glucagon, catecholamines, and growth hormone in human glucose counterregulation, J. Clin. Invest. 64:62–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Rizza, R. A., Cryer, P. E., Haymond, M. W., and Gerich, J. E., 1980a, Adrenergic mechanisms for the effects of epinephrine on glucose production and clearance in man, J. Clin. Invest. 65:682–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Rizza, R. A., Haymond, M. W., Miles, J. M., Verdonk, C. A., Cryer, P. E., and Gerich, J. E., 1980b, Effect of α-adrenergic stimulation and its blockade on glucose turnover in man, Am J. Physiol. 5:E467–472.Google Scholar
  266. Robertson, R. P., and Chen, M., 1977, A role for prostaglandin E in defective insulin secretion and carbohydrate intolerance in diabetes mellitus, J. Clin. Invest. 60:747–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Robertson, R. P., and Guest, R. J., 1978, Reversal by methysergide of inhibition of insulin secretion by prostaglandin E in the dog, J. Clin. Invest. 62:1014–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Robinson, T. J., Archer, J. A., Gambhir, K. K., Hollins, V. W., Jr., Carter, L., and Bradley, C., 1979, Erythrocytes: A new cell type for the evaluation of insulin receptor defects in diabetic humans, Science 205:200–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F., and Jeanrenaud, B., 1980, Consequences of ventromedial hypothalamic lesions upon insulin and glucagon secretion by subsequently isolated perfused pancreases in the rat, J. Clin. Invest. 65:902–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Rosenthal, M. A., 1979, The effect of temperature on the fast hemoglobin test system, Hemoglobin 3:215–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Rull, J. A., Quibrera, R., Gonzales-Millan, H., and Castaneda, O. L., 1969, Symptomatic treatment of peripheral neuropathy with carbamazepine: Double-blind crossover trial, Diabetologia 5:215–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Sacca, L., Hendler, R., and Sherwin, R. S., 1978, Hyperglycemia inhibits glucose production in man independent of changes in glucoregulatory hormones, J. Clin. Endocnnol. Metab. 47:1160–1163.Google Scholar
  273. Sacca, L., Sherwin, R., Hendler, R., and Felig, P., 1979a, Influence of continuous physiologic hyperinsulinemia on glucose kinetics and counterregulatory hormones in normal and diabetic humans, J. Clin. Invest. 63:849–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Sacca, L., Cryer, P. E., and Sherwin, R. S., 1979b, Blood glucose regulates the effects of insulin and counterregulatory hormones on glucose production in vivo, Diabetes 28:533–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Sacca, L., Eigler, N., Cryer, P. E., and Sherwin, R. S., 1979c, Insulin antagonistic effects of epinephrine and glucagon in the dog, Am J. Physiol. 6(6):E487–492.Google Scholar
  276. Sahyoun, N., Hock, R. A., and Hollenberg, M. D., 1978, Insulin and epidermal growth factors—urogastrone: Affinity crosslinking to specific binding sites on rat liver membranes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:1675–1679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Salway, J. G., Whitehead, L., Finnegan, J. A., Karunananyaka, A. Barnett, D., and Payne, R. B., 1978, Effect of myo-inositol on peripheral nerve function in diabetes, Lancet 2:1282–1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Santiago, J. V., Davis, J. E., and Fisher, F., 1978, Hemoglobin Alc levels in a diabetes detection program, J. Clin. Endrocrinol. Metab. 47:578–480.Google Scholar
  279. Santiago, J. V., Clarke, W. L., Shah, S. D., and Cryer P. E., 1980, Epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, and growth hormone release in association with physiological decrements in the plasma glucose concentration in normal and diabetic man, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 51:877–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Saudek, C. D., Werns, S., and Reidenberg, M. M., 1977, Phenytoin in the treatment of diabetic symmetrical polyneuropathy, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 22:196–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Savage, P. J., Bennion, L. J., Flock, E. V., Nagulesparan, M., Mott, D., Roth, J., Unger, R. H., and Bennett, P. H., 1979, Diet-induced improvement of abnormalities in insulin and glucagon secretion and in insulin receptor binding in diabetes mellitus, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 48:999–1007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Schernthaner, G., Ludwig, H., and Mayr, W. R., 1979, Immunoglobulin G-insulin antibodies and immune region-associated alloantigens in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 48:403–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Schlichtkrull, J.,1973, Monocomponent insulin and its clinical implications, Excerpta Medica Int. Cong. Ser. 316:29–37.Google Scholar
  284. Schmidt, R. E., Matschinsky, F. M., Godfrey, D. A., Williams, A. D., and McDougal, D. B., 1975, Fast and slow axoplasmic flow in sciatic nerve in diabetic rats, Diabetes 24:1081–1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Schulman, G. I., Liljenquist, J. E., Williams, P. E., Lacy, W. W., and Cherrington, A. D., 1978, Glucose disposal during insulinopenia in somatostatin-treated dogs, J. Clin. Invest. 62:487–491.Google Scholar
  286. Schulman, G. I., Lacy, W. W., Liljenquist, J. E. Keller, U., Williams, P. E., and Cherrington, A. D., 1980, Effect of glucose, independent of changes in insulin and glucose secretion on alanine metabolism in the conscious dog, J. Clin. Invest. 65:496–505.Google Scholar
  287. Schútt, P., Moche, H., Lehmann, H. J., and Hielscher, H., 1980, Sural nerve conduction velocity and refractory period in diabetics without clinical signs of neuropathy, Horm. Metab. Res. 9(Suppl.):39–42.Google Scholar
  288. Scott, F. B., Fishman, I. J., and Light, J. K., 1980, An inflatable penile prosthesis for treatment of diabetic impotence, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:340–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Seals, J. R., and Czech, M. P., 1980, Evidence that insulin activates an intrinsic plasma membrane protease in generating a secondary chemical mediator, J. Biol. Chem. 255:6529–6531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Seals, J. R., and Jarett, L., 1980, Activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by direct addition of insulin to an isolated plasma membrane/mitochondria mixture: Evidence for generation of insulin’s second messenger in a subcellular system, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:77–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Shima, K., Tanaka, R., Morishita, S., Tarui, S., Kumahara, V., and Nishikawa, M., 1977, Studies on the etiology of “brittle diabetes,” Diabetes 26:717–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Shuman, C. R., and Gilpin, S. F., 1954, Diabetic neuropathy: Controlled therapeutic trials, Am.J. Med. 227:612–617.Google Scholar
  293. Sidenius, P., and Jakobsen, J., 1980, Reduced perikaryal volume of lower motor and primary sensory neurons in early experimental diabetes, Diabetes 29:182–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Siegel, J., and Olefsky, J. M., 1980, Role of intracellular energy in insulin’s ability to activate adipoxyte glucose transport, Biochemistry 19:2183–2190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Sima, A. A. F., and Robertson, D. M., 1978a, Peripheral neuropathy in the mutant diabetic mouse [C57BI/Ks (db/db)], Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 41:85–89.Google Scholar
  296. Sima, A. A. F., and Robertson, D. M., 1978b, The perineural and blood nerve barriers in experimental diabetes, Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 44:189–195.Google Scholar
  297. Simon, M., and Eissler, J., 1980, Critical factors in the Chromatographic measurement of glycohemoglobin (HbA1), Diabetes 29:467–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Skyler, J. S., 1979, Complications of diabetes mellitus: Relationship to metabolic dysfunction, Diabetes Care 2:499–509.Google Scholar
  299. Smith, S. E., Smith, S. A., Brown, P. M., Fox, C., and Sonksen, P. H., 1978, Pupillary signs in diabetic autonomic neuropathy, Br. Med. J. 2:924–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Sosenko, J. M., Flückiger, R., Platt, O. S., and Gabbay, K. H., 1980, Glycosylation of variant hemoglobins in normal and diabetic subjects, Diabetes Care 3:590–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Spellacy, W. N., and Goetz, F. C., 1963, Insulin antibodies in pregnancy, Lancet 2:222–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Spicer, K. M., Allen, R. C., and Buse, M. G., 1978, A simplified assay of hemoglobin Alc in diabetic patients by use of isoelectric focusing and quantitative microdensitrometry, Diabetes 27:384–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Stagner, J. L, Samols, E., and Weir, G. C., 1980, Sustained oscillations of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin from the isolated canine pancreas during exposure to a constant glucose concentration, J. Clin. Invest. 65:939–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Stanik, S., and Marcus, R., 1980, Insulin secretion improves following dietary control of plasma glucose in severely hyperglycemic obese patients, Metabolism 29:346–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Stevens, V.J., Vlassara, H., Abati, A., and Cerami, A., 1977, Nonenzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin, J. Biol. Chem. 752:2998–3002.Google Scholar
  306. Stevens, V. J., Rouzer, C. A., Monnier, V. M., and Cerami, A., 1978, Diabetic cataract formation: Potential role of glycosylation of lens crystallins, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:2918–2922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Suzuki, K., and Kono, T., 1980, Evidence that insulin causes translocation of glucose transport activity to the plasma membrane from an intracellular storage site, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:2542–2545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Taborsky, G. J., Jr., Smith, P. H., Halter, J. B., and Porte, D., Jr., 1979, Glucose infusion potentiates the acute insulin response to nonglucose stimuli during the infusion of somatostatin, Endrocrinology 105:1215–1220.Google Scholar
  309. Tager, H., Given, B., Baldwin, D., Mako, M., Markese, J., Rubenstein, A., Olefsky, J., Kobayashi, M., Kolterman, O., and Poucher, R., 1979, A structurally abnormal insulin causing human diabetes, Nature 281:122–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Tager, H., Thomas, N., Assoian, R., Rubenstein, A., Saekow, M., Olefsky, J., and Kaiser, E. T., 1980, Semisynthesis and biological activity of porcine [LeuB24] insulin and LeuB25] insulin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:3181–3185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Taminato, T., Seino, Y., Goto, Y., Inoue, Y., Kadowaki, S., Mori, K., Nozawa, M., Yajima, H., and Imura H., 1977, Synthetic gastric inhibitory polypeptide. Stimulatory effect on insulin and glucagon secretion in the rat, Diabetes 26:480–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Tattersall, R. B., Pyke, D. A., Ranney, H. M., and Bruckheimer, S. M., 1975, Hemoglobin components in diabetes mellitus: Studies in identical twins, N. Engl. J. Med. 293:1171–1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Tchobroutsky, G., Charitanski, D., Blouquit, Y., Papoz, L., Soria, J., and Rosa J., 1980, Diabetic control in 102 insulin-treated out-patients, Diabetologia 18:447–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Terris, S., and Steiner, D. F., 1975, Binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by rat hepatocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 250:8389–8398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Th. Hulst, S. G., 1976, Treatment of insulin-induced lipoatrophy, Diabetes 25:1052–1054.Google Scholar
  316. Thomopoulos, P., Berthellier, M., and Laudat, M.-H., 1978, Loss of insulin receptors on maturation of reticulocytes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 85:1460–1465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Thompson, R. H. S., Butterfield, W. J. H., and Fry, I. K., 1960, Pyruvate metabolism in diabetic neuropathy, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 53:143–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Torella, R., Giugliano, D., Siniscalchio, N., Sgambato, S., and D’Onofrio, F., 1979, Influence of acetylsalicylic acid on plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone levels following tolbutamide stimulation in man, Metabolism 28:887–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Trivelli, L. A., Ranney, H. M., and Lai, H.-T., 1971, Hemoglobin components in patients with diabetes mellitus, N. Engl. J. Med. 284:353–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Turakulov, Ya. Kh., Gainutdinov, M. Kh., Lavina, I. I., and Akhmatov, M. S., 1977, Insulin dependent cytoplasmic regulator of the transport of Ga+ ions in live mitochondria, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. S.S.S.R. 234:1471–1473, English translation, 1977, Dokl. Biochem. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., 234:196–198.Google Scholar
  321. Turner, R. C., Holman, R. R., Matthews, D., Hockaday, T. D. R., and Peto, J., 1979, Insulin deficiency and insulin resistance interaction in diabetes: Estimation of their relative contribution by feedback analysis from basal plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, Metabolism 28:1086–1096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Vega, F. V., Key, R. J., Jordan, J. E., and Kono, T., 1980, Reversal of insulin effects in fat cells may require energy for deactivation of glucose transport, but not for deactivation of phosphodiesterase, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 203:167–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Verdonk, C. A., Rizza, R. A., Nelson, R. L., Go, V. L. W., Gerich, J. E., and Service, F. J., 1980, Interaction of fat-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide on pancreatic alpha and beta cell function, J. Clin. Invest. 65:1119–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Verspohl, E. J., and Ammon, H. P. T., 1980, Evidence for presence of insulin receptors in rat islets of Langerhans, J. Clin. Invest. 65:1230–1237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Viberti, G. C., Keen, H., and Bloom, S. R., 1980a, Beta blockade and diabetes mellitus: Effect of oxprenolol and metoprolol on the metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in insulin-dependent diabetics, Metabolism 29:866–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Viberti, G. C., Keen, H., and Bloom, S. R., 1980b, Beta blockade and diabetes mellitus: Effect of oxprenolol and metoprolol on the metabolic cardiovascular, and hormonal response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in normal subjects, Metabolism 29:873–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Villalpando, S., and Drash, A., 1979, Circulating glucagon antibodies in children who have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Diabetes 28:294–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Wachslicht-Rodbard, H., Gross, H. A., Rodbard, D., Ebert, M. H., and Roth, J., 1979, Increased insulin binding to erythrocytes in anorexia nervosa. Restoration to normal with refeeding, N. Engl. J. Med. 300:882–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Walford, S., Allison, S. P., Kelly, U., Deverill, I., and Reeves, W. G., 1980, Do antibodies influence insulin dosage and diabetic control? Diabetologia 19:10.Google Scholar
  330. Ward, J. D., Barnes, C. G., Fisher, D. J., Jessop, J. D., and Baker, R. W. R., 1971, Improvement in nerve conduction following treatment in newly diagnosed diabetics, Lancet 1:428–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Wasserman, M. D., Pollak, C. P., Spielman, A. J., and Weitzman, E. D., 1980, The differential diagnosis of impotence: The measurement of nocturnal penile tumescence J.A.M.A. 243:2038–2042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Watkins, P. J., and Mackay, J. D., 1980, Cardiac denervation in diabetic neuropathy, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:304–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Waxman, S. G., 1980, Pathophysiology of nerve conduction: Relation to diabetic neuropathy, Ann. Intern. Med. 92:297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Weber, B., Tech, J., Schmidt, H., and Oberdisse, U., 1978, Antibody formation and insulin requirements in diabetic children during treatment with purified commercial pork insulins, Eur. J. Pediatr. 128:89–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Welch, S. G., and Boucher, B. J., 1978, A rapid micro-scale method for the measurement of haemoglobin A1(a+b+c), Diabetologia 14:209–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Widstrom, A., 1977, Influence of indomethacin on glucose-induced insulin response in normal man—role of prostaglandins in the rapid insulin release? Horm. Metab. Res. 9:172–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Wigand, J. P., and Blackard, W. G., 1979, Downregulation of insulin receptors in obese man, Diabetes 28:287–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Winegrad, A. I., and Greene, D. A., 1976, Diabetic polyneuropathy: The importance of insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia and alterations in myoinositol metabolism in its pathogenesis, N. Engl. J. Med. 295:1416–1421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Yagihashi, S., Kudo, K., and Nishihira, M., 1979, Peripheral nerve structures of experimental diabetes rates and the effects of insulin treatment, Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 127:35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Yip, C. C., Yeung, C. W. T., and Moule, M. L., 1978, Photoaffinity labeling of insulin receptors in rat adipocyte plasma membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 253:1743–1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Yip, C. C., Yeung, C. W. T., and Moule, M. L., 1980, Photoaffinity labeling of liver plasma membrane preparations, Biochemistry 19:70–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Yue, D. K., and Turtle, J. R., 1975, Antigenicity of “monocomponent” pork insulin in diabetic subjects, Diabetes 24:625–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Yue, D. K., Baxter, R. C., and Turtle, J. R., 1978, C-peptide secretion and insulin antibodies as determinants of stability in diabetes mellitus, Metabolism 27:35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Yue, D. K., Morris, K., McLennan, S., and Turtle, J. R., 1980, Glycosylation of plasma protein and its relation to glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes, Diabetes 29:296–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel PorteJr.
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jeffrey B. Halter
    • 3
    • 4
  • Christoph de Haën
    • 5
  • Jerry P. Palmer
    • 5
  • Christopher M. Asplin
    • 5
  • Ronald J. Graf
    • 6
    • 7
  • Michael A. Pfeifer
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Diabetes CenterUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of MedicineVeterans Administration Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical CenterVeterans Administration Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineUniversity of Washington, School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  6. 6.Department of MedicineUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  7. 7.Department of MedicineVeterans Administration Medical CenterSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations