Advertisement

Attention Switching in Higher Mental Process

  • David Schonfield
Part of the Advances in the Study of Communication and Affect book series (ASCA, volume 8)

Abstract

Use of the phrase higher mental processes involves the tacit assumption of a high-low dimension. Low points of this dimension presumably indicate that the route from input leads directly to output. Words such as route and lead in that sentence tend to evoke images of maps and space, but obviously the language is metaphorical so long as mental processes are under discussion. There is no neurological insinuation that low mental processes are confined to lower anatomical sections of the brain. Time, not space, serves as the necessary, albeit insufficient, measure or criterion for deciding whether the route is direct, whether a marriage between cue and appropriate performance has or has not been arranged beforehand. To deserve the label of a higher mental process, there must at least be a time lapse between problem and solution, between input cue and output behavior.

Keywords

High Mental Process Divided Attention Fluid Intelligence Attention Switch Dichotic Listening 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ach, N. Ueber die Willenstaetigkeit und das Denken. Goettingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1905.Google Scholar
  2. Bartlett, F. C. Thinking. London: Allen & Unwin, 1958.Google Scholar
  3. Bruner, J. S., Goodnow, J. J., & Austin, G. A. A study of thinking. New York: Wiley, 1956.Google Scholar
  4. Craik, F. I. M., & Simon, E. Age differences in memory: The roles of attention and depth of processing. In L. W. Poon, J. L. Fozard, L. S. Cermak, D. Arenberg & L. W. Thompson (Eds.), New directions in memory and aging: Proceedings of the George Talland Memorial Conference. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. Fager, D. S. Effect of preoccupation on age differences in reaction to time. Unpublished Master of Science thesis, University of Calgary, 1980.Google Scholar
  6. Hasher, L., & Zacks, R. T. Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1979, 108, 356–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Horn J. L. Concepts of intellect in relation to learning and adult development. Intelligence, 1980, 4, 285–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kounin, J. S. Experimental studies of rigidity. Character and Personality, 1941, 9, 251–272.Google Scholar
  9. Lewin, K. Principles of topological psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Schonfield, D. Memory changes with age. Nature, 1965, 208, 918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Schonfield, D. Translations in gerontology—From lab to life: Utilizing information. American Psychologist, 1974, 29, 796–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schonfield, D., & Stones, M. J. Remembering and aging. In J. F. Kihlstrom & F. J. Evans (Eds.), Functional’disorders of memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979, 103–139.Google Scholar
  13. Schonfield, D., Trueman, V., & Kline, D. Recognition tests of dichotic listening and the age variable. Journal of Gerontology, 1972, 27, 487–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Simon, E. Depth and elaboration of processing in relation to age. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human learning and memory, 1979, 5, 115–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Smith, S. L. Age differences in part and whole learning. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Calgary, 1974.Google Scholar
  16. Welford, A. T. Aging and human skill. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  17. Woodworth, R. S. Dynamics of behavior. New York: Holt, 1958.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Schonfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations