Cellular Defense Systems of the Mollusca

  • Thelma C. Fletcher
  • C. Anwyl Cooper-Willis


By the time the oldest fossiliferous rocks were laid down, the molluscs were already represented by many different patterns (Runnegar and Pojeta, 1974). Few phyla show such wide diversity imposed on such a uniform body plan. The estimated 47,000 living molluscan species (Boss, 1971) evolved from a group related to the same stock as that from which the arthropods and annelids derive. The gastropods are the most abundant class, representing 80% of the total species, while the lamellibranchs represent 16% and the cephalopods only 1%.


Digestive Gland Schistosoma Mansoni Crassostrea Virginica Macoma Balthica American Oyster 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thelma C. Fletcher
    • 1
  • C. Anwyl Cooper-Willis
    • 2
  1. 1.NERC Institute of Marine BiochemistryAberdeenScotland
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of Oregon Health Sciences CenterPortlandUSA

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