Advertisement

Atmospheric Particulate Carbon Observations in Urban and Rural Areas of the United States

  • P. K. Mueller
  • K. K. Fung
  • S. L. Heisler
  • D. Grosjean
  • G. M. Hidy

Abstract

Observations of airborne particles containing carbon have been attempted by a variety of different methods. These have been aimed at detailed characterization of compounds for research purposes, as well as simple measures for air monitoring. The latter focused on solvent extractables prior to 1970, but more recently have evolved into techniques such as the thermal or catalytic oxidation to carbon dioxide. In this paper, a survey of recent measurements for noncarbonate carbon and elemental carbon are reported using the oxidation technique. Urban data for communities in New England, Houston, Denver and Los Angeles are given. Rural data from nine stations in the greater northeastern United States and the California San Joaquin Valley also are presented for comparison. The observations indicate the presence of noncarbonate carbon at concentrations above lµg/m3 at most locations. The urban and rural sites in California are particularly rich in carbonaceous material. Winter data in Denver taken in 1978 indicate a substantial fraction of carbon in the aerosol is elemental in nature. In urban sites, as much as half of the noncarbonate carbon present can be elemental in character. Carbon is widespread in airborne particles, and is potentially important to public health considerations and visibility impairment. Therefore, its molecular composition should be better characterized and it should be considered for routine monitoring with other major particulate constituents in the United States.

Keywords

Particulate Carbon Elemental Carbon Carbonaceous Material Total Suspended Particle Secondary Organic Aerosol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Leiter, M. B. Shimkin and M. J. Shear, J. Nation Cancer Inst., Vol. 3 (1942), p. 155.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Kotin, H. L. Falk, P. Mader, M. Thomas, Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Med., Vol. 9 (1954), p. 153.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Academy of Sciences, Particulate Polycyclic Organic Matter, National Research Council, Washington, DC. (1972)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Grosjean, Aerosols, Chapt. 3 in Ozone and Other Photoche mical Oxidants, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., (1977), pp. 45–125.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. L. Heisler and S. K. Friedlander, Atmos. Environ., Vol. 11 (1977), p. 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. H. McMurray and S. K. Friedlander, J. Colloid Interface Sci., Vol. 64 (1978), p. 248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Schuetzle, A. L. Crittenden and R. J. Charlson, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., Vol. 23 (1973), p. 704.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Schuetzle, D. Cronn, A. L. Crittenden and R. J. Charlson, Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 9 (1975), p. 838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Grosjean, K. Van Cauwenberghe, J. P. Schmid, P. E. Kelley and J. N. Pitts, Jr., Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol 12 (1978), p. 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. K. Mueller, R. W. Mosley and L. B. Pierce, J. Colloid Interface Sci., Vol. 39 (1972), p. 235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. M. Hidy, P. K. Mueller, D. Grosjean, B. R. Appel and J. J. Weslowski (Ed.), The Character and Origins of Smog Aerosols, Wiley, New York, NY(1979).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Grosjean, Anal. Chem., Vol. 47 (1975), p. 797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. S. Macias, C. D. Radcliffe, C. W. Lewis and C. R. Sawicki, Anal. Chem., Vol. 50 (1978), p. 1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. J. Huntzicker and R. L. Johnson, Paper 2, Proceedings of the Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, Lawrence Berkeley Labortory, Berkeley, CA. (1979).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Grosjean and S. K. Friedlander, Formation of Organic Aerosols from Cyclic Olefins and Diolefins in The Character and Origins of Smog Aerosols, G. M. Hidy, (Ed.). Wiley, New York, N.Y., (1979), pp. 435–473.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. Novakov, S. G. Chang and A. B. Harkins, Science, Vol. 186 (1974), p. 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Rosen and T. Novakov, Nature, Vol. 266 (1977), p. 708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. G. Chang and T. Novakov, Atmos. Environ., Vol. 9 (1975), p. 495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. N. Pitts, Jr., D. Grosjean, T. M. Mishke, V. F. Simmon and D. Poole, Toxicol. Letters, Vol. 1 (1977), p. 65.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. N. Pitts, Jr., K. Van Cauwenberghe, D. Grosjean, J. P. Schmid, D. R. Fitz, W. L. Belser, G. B. Knudson and P. M. Hynds, Science, Vol. 202 (1978), p. 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Grosjean, K. Van Cauwenberghe, D. R. Fitz and J. N. Pitts, Jr., Amer. Chem. Soc. Div. Environ. Chem. Preprints, Vol. 18 (1978), pp. 354–356.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    National Research Council, Diesel Impacts Study Committee, Draft Report, Washington, DC. (1980).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. L. Heisler, R. C. Henry, J. G. Watson, and G. M. Hidy, The 1978 Denver Winter Haze Study. ERT Project for the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers of the United States, Inc., Westlake Village, CA. (1980), p. 5417.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. T. Wolff R. J. Countess, P. J. Groblicki, M. A. Ferman, S. H. Cadle and J. L. Muhlbaier, Atmos. Environ.. Vol. 15 (1981), p. 2485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cautreels and K. Van Cauwenberghe, Atmos. Environ., Vol. 12 (1978), pp. 1133–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Grosjean, K. Fung, P. K. Mueller, S. Heisler, and G. M. Hidy, Paper No. 45G, Symposium on Sampling and Analysis of Particulate Matter, 72nd Annual AICHE Meeting, San Francisco, CA, November 27. AICHE Symposium Series AIR-1979, (1979).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    P. K. Mueller, G. M. Hidy, R. L. Baskett, K. K. Fung, R. C. Henry, T. F. Lavery, N. J. Lordi, A. C. Lloyd, J. W. Thrasher, K. K. Warren, and J. G. Watson, The Sulfate Regional Experiment: Report of Findings, Report EA-1901, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94306, Vol. 2 (1981).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. L. Heisler, Particulate Sampling and Analysis, Final Report ERT P-5190, for the Houston Area Oxidant Study (HAOS), Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (1979).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. L. Heisler, R. C. Henry, P. K. Mueller, G. M. Hidy and D. Grosjean, Aerosol Behavior Patterns in the South Coast Air Basin with Emphasis on Airborne Sulfate. Final Report ERT Project P-A085, for the Southern California Edison Co. (1980).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. C. Chow, A. Flaherty, E. Moore and J. Watson, Filter Analysis for TSP–SIP Development. EPA901/9–78–003, U.S. EPA Region I, Lexington, MA (1980).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. L. Heisler and R. Baskett, Particle Sampling and Analysis in the California San Joaquin Valley. Final Report ERT P-5381–700 for the California Air Resources Board, Environmental Research & Technology, Inc., Westlake Village, CA (1980).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. G. Watson and P. K. Mueller, The Eastern Regional Air Quality Study Report EA1914, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto CA, in manuscript (1981).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    B. R. T. Simoneit, Eolian Particulates from Oceanic and Rural Areas in Prog. Phys. and Chem. of the Earth. A. G. Douglas and J. R. Maxwell (editors), Pergamon Press Ltd., London, in press (1980).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. K. Mueller
    • 1
  • K. K. Fung
    • 1
  • S. L. Heisler
    • 1
  • D. Grosjean
    • 1
  • G. M. Hidy
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Research & Technology, Inc.Westlake VillageUSA

Personalised recommendations