Advertisement

Behavioral Bibliotherapy: Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Outcome Research into Self-Help Programs

  • Michael G. T. Dow

Abstract

Although the term “bibliotherapy” probably smacks of contemporary “psychobabble”, like the technique to which it refers, it has a lengthy history. It first appeared in Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary in 1941 and was defined as ‘the employment of books and the reading of them in the treatment of nervous diseases’ — a definition which was expanded twenty years later to include physical disorders. The therapeutic use and value of books have been recognised since ancient times. Tews (1970) reports that the libraries of three millennia bore the inscription in Greek, ‘Medicine (or remedy) for the soul’, and she notes that records of early Roman encyclopaedists ‘leave little doubt that books were made to serve curative objectives, particularly in the treatment of the emotionally disturbed patient’ (p.173) and in the sixteenth century Rabelais (1494–1553) prescribed literature for his patients as part of their treatment (Schneck, 1944). Of course, the theoretical rationale for their use in treatment has changed throughout history. Originally, the therapeutic emphasis was mainly on the act of reading itself, with the material considered more a source of moral and intellectual sustenance rather than a medium for directive guidance.

Keywords

Sexual Dysfunction Premature Ejaculation Minimal Contact Therapist Contact Systematic Desensitisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agras, W.S., and Berkowitz, R., 1980, Clinical research in behaviour therapy; Halfway there?, Beh. Ther., 11:472–487.Google Scholar
  2. Alpert, J.J., 1964, Broken appointments, Pediatrics, 34:127–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arkell, R.N., Kubo, H.R., and Meunier, C.P., 1976, Readability and parental behaviour modification literature, Beh. Ther., 7: 265–266.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, R.M., 1971, AMA and AWOL discharges: a six year comparative study, Hosp. Comm. Psychiat., 22:293–296.Google Scholar
  5. Azrin, N.H., 1977, A strategy for applied research — Learning based but outcome orientated, Amer. Psychol., Feb., pp.140–149.Google Scholar
  6. Azrin, N.H., and Foxx, R.M., 1974, “Toilet Training in Less Than a Day,” Simon & Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Baekeland, F., and Lundwall, L., 1975, Dropping out of treatment: a critical review, Psychol. Bull., 82:738–783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., and Risley, T.R., 1968, Some current dimensions of applied behaviour analysis, J. App. Beh. Anal., 1:91–97.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, B.L., Cohen, D.C., and Saunders, J.T., 1973, Self-directed desensitisation for acrophobia, Beh. Res. & Ther., 11:79–89.Google Scholar
  10. Bandura, A., 1977, “Social Learning Theory,” Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A., Adams, N.E., and Beyer, J., 1977, Cognitive processes mediating behavioural change, J. Pers. & Soc. Psychol., 35: 125–139.Google Scholar
  12. Bandura, A., Jeffery, R.W., and Gajdos, E., 1975, Generalising change through participant modelling with self-directed mastery, Beh. Res. & Ther., 13:141–152.Google Scholar
  13. Barbach, L.G., 1976, “For Yourself: The Fulfilment of Female Sexuality.” Anchor Press/Doubleday, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Barrera, M. Jr., and Rosen, G.M., 1977, Detrimental effects of a self-reward contracting program on subjects’ involvement in self-administered desensitisation, J. Cons. & Clin. Psychol., 45:1180–1181.Google Scholar
  15. Bastien, S., and Jacobs, A., 1974, An experimental study of the effectiveness of written communication as a form of psychotherapy, J. Cons. & Clin. Psychol., 42(1):151.Google Scholar
  16. Bellack, A.S., 1975, Behaviour therapy for weight reduction: an evaluative review, Addictive Behs., 1:73–82.Google Scholar
  17. Bellack, A.S., 1976, A comparison of self-reinforcement and self-monitoring in a weight reduction program, Beh. Ther., 7:68–75.Google Scholar
  18. Bellack, A.S., Glanz, L., and Simon, R., 1976, Self-reinforcement style and covert imagery in the treatment of obesity, J. Cons. & Clin. Psychol., 44:490–491.Google Scholar
  19. Bellack, A.S., Schwarts, J., and Rozensty, R.H., 1974, The contribution of external control to self-control in a weight reduction program, J. Beh. Ther. & Exp. Psychiat., 5:245–249.Google Scholar
  20. Beneke, W.M., and Harris, M.B., 1972, Teaching self-control of study behaviour, Beh. Res. & Ther., 10:35–41.Google Scholar
  21. Bergman, A.B., and Werner, R.J., 1963, Failure of children to receive penicillin by mouth, New Eng. J. Med., 268:1334–1338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Boyle, C.M., 1970, Differences between doctors1 and patients’ interpretations of some common medical terms, B.M.J., 2:286–289.Google Scholar
  23. Brehm, J.W., and Cohen, A.R., 1962, “Explorations in Cognitive Dissonance,” Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Brown, P., and Faulder, C., 1977, “Treat Yourself to Sex — A Guide for Good Loving,” Dent & Sons Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  25. Bry, I., 1942, Medical aspects of literature, Bull. Med. Libr. Assoc., 30:252–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Carr, J.E., and Wittenbaugh, J.A., 1968, Volunteer and non-volunteer characteristics in an out-patient population, J. Abn. Psychol., 73:16–17.Google Scholar
  27. Clark, F., 1973, Self-administered desensitisation, Beh. Res. & Ther., 11:335–338.Google Scholar
  28. Cohoe, E., 1960, Bibliotherapy for socially maladjusted children, Nat. Educ. Assoc. J., 49:34.Google Scholar
  29. Darling, R.L., 1957, Mental hygiene and books. Bibliotherapy as used with children and adolescents, Wilson Libr. Bull., 32: 293–296.Google Scholar
  30. Davis, M.S., 1967, Predicting non-compliant behaviour, J. Health & Soc. Beh., 8:265–271.Google Scholar
  31. Davison, G., 1968, Systematic desensitisation as a counter conditioning process, J. Abn. Psychol., 73:91–99.Google Scholar
  32. Donner, L., 1970, Automated group desensitisation — a follow-up report, Beh. Res. & Ther., 8:241–247.Google Scholar
  33. Dow, M.G.T., 1980, A comparative evaluation of’ self-help’ and conventional Masters and Johnson treatments for sexual dysfunction. Paper presented at Brit. Psychol. Soc. Ann. Conf., March, 1980, University of Aberdeen.Google Scholar
  34. Emerick, L.L., 1966, Bibliotherapy for stutterers: Four case histories, Quart. J. Speech, 52:74.Google Scholar
  35. Fensterheim, H., and Baer, J.L., 1975, “Don’t Say Yes When You Want to Say No: How Assertiveness Training Can Change Your Life,” Dell, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Festinger, L., 1957, “A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance,” Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Flesch, R., 1948, A new readability yardstick, J. App. Psychol., 32:221–233.Google Scholar
  38. Floch, M., 1958, Bibliotherapy and the library, The Bookmark, Dec. 1958, 18:57–59.Google Scholar
  39. Francis, V., Korsch, B.M., and Morris, M.J., 1969, Gaps in doctor-patient communication, New Eng. J. Med., 280:535–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fry, E.B., 1968, A readability formula that saves time, J. of Reading, 11:513–516, 575–578 (April).Google Scholar
  41. Glasgow, R.E., and Rosen, G.M., 1978, Behavioural bibliotherapy: a review of self-help behaviour therapy manuals, Psychol. Bull., 85(1);1–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Goldiamond, I., 1965, Self-control procedures in personal behaviour problems, Psychol. Rep., 17:851–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Goldiamond, I., 1976, Singling out self-administered behaviour therapies for professional overview: a comment on Rosen, Amer. Psychol., 31:142–147.Google Scholar
  44. Hagen, R.L., 1974, Group therapy vs. bibliotherapy in weight reduction, Beh. Ther., 5:222–234.Google Scholar
  45. Hanson, R.W., Borden, B.L., Hall, S.M., and Hall, R.G., 1976, Use of programmed instruction in teaching self-management skills to overweight adults, Beh. Ther., 7:366–373.Google Scholar
  46. Harris, M.B., 1969, Self-directed program for weight control: a pilot study, J. Abn. Psychol., 74:263–270.Google Scholar
  47. Harris, M.B., and Ream, F., 1972, A program to improve study habits of high-school students, Psychol. in the Schools, 9:325–330.Google Scholar
  48. Hartman, E.A., 1951, “Imaginative Literature as a Projective Technique: A Study in Bibliotherapy,” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  49. Haynes, R.B., 1976, A critical review of the “determinants” of patient compliance with therapeutic regimens, in: “Compliance With Therapeutic Regimens,” D.L. Sackett & R.B. Haynes, eds., John Hopkins University Press, New York, pp.26–39.Google Scholar
  50. Heiman, J., LoPiccolo, L., and LoPiccolo, J., 1976, “Becoming Orgasmic: A Sexual Growth Program for Women,” Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  51. Johannsen, W.J., Hellmuth, G.A., and Sorauf, T., 1966, On accepting medical recommendations, Arch. Envir. Health, 12:63–69.Google Scholar
  52. Kahn, M., and Baker, B., 1968, Desensitisation with minimal therapist contact, J. Abn. Psychol., 73:198–200.Google Scholar
  53. Kanfer, F.H., 1971, The maintenance of behaviour by self-generated stimuli and reinforcement, in: “The Psychology of Private Events,” A. Jacobs & L.B. Sachs, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Kanfer, F.H., 1975, Self-management methods, in: “Helping People Change: A Textbook of Methods,” F.H. Kanfer & A.P. Goldstein, eds., Pergamon, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Kanfer, F.H., 1979, Self-management and strategies and tactics, in: “Maximising Treatment Gains — Transfer Enhancement in Psychotherapy,” A.P. Goldstein & F.H. Kanfer, eds., Academic Press, London, pp.185–224.Google Scholar
  56. Kanfer, F.H., and Karoly, P., 1972, Self-control: a behaviouristic excursion into the lion’s den, Beh. Ther., 3:398–416.Google Scholar
  57. Kaplan, H.S., 1974, “The New Sex Therapy,” Bailliere Tindall, London.Google Scholar
  58. Kass, D.J., and Stauss, F., 1975, “Sex Therapy at Home,” Simon & Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Kazdin, A.E., 1974, Self-monitoring and behaviour change, in: “Self-control: Power to the Person,” M.J. Mahoney & C.E. Thoresen, eds., Brooks/Cole, Monterey, California.Google Scholar
  60. Klare, G.R., 1963, “The Measurement of Readability,” Iowa State University Press, Iowa.Google Scholar
  61. Kopel, S., and Arkowitz, H., 1975, The role of attribution and self-perception in behaviour change: Implications for behaviour therapy, Genet. Psychol. Monogs., 92:175–212.Google Scholar
  62. Lazarsfeld, S., 1949, The use of fiction in psychotherapy, Amer. J. Psychother., 3:26–33, January 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lazarus, A.A., 1976, “Multimodal Behavior Therapy,” Springer Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Leary, T., 1957, “Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality,” Ronald Press, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Ley, P., 1972a, Comprehension, memory and the success of communication with the patient, J. Instit. Health Educ., 10:23–29.Google Scholar
  66. Ley, P., 1972b, Primacy, rated importance and recall of medical information, J. Health & Soc. Beh., 13:311–317.Google Scholar
  67. Ley, P., 1976, Toward better doctor-patient communications. Contributions from social and experimental psychology, in: “Communications in Medicine,” A.E. Bennet, ed., Oxford University Press, London for the Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust.Google Scholar
  68. Ley, P., 1977, Psychological studies of doctor-patient communication, in: “Contributions to Medical Psychology, Vol. 1,” S. Rachman, ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford, Chap. 2, pp.9–42.Google Scholar
  69. Ley, P., 1979, Memory for medical information, Brit. J. Soc. & Clin. Psychol., 18:245–255.Google Scholar
  70. Ley, P., Bradshaw, P.W., Eaves, D.E., and Walker, C.M., 1973, A method of increasing patients’ recall of information presented to them, Psychol. Med., 3:217–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Ley, P., Goldman, M., Bradshaw, P.W., Kincey, J.A., and Walker, C.M., 1972, The comprehensibility of some x-ray leaflets, J. Instit. Health Educ, 10:47–55.Google Scholar
  72. Ley, P., Jain, V.R., and Skilbeck, C.E., 1976, A method for decreasing patients’ medication errors, Psycho1. Med., 6:599–601.Google Scholar
  73. Ley, P., and Spelman, M.S., 1965, Communications in an out-patient setting, Brit. J. Soc. & Clin. Psychol., 4:114–116.Google Scholar
  74. Ley, P., and Spelman, M.S., 1967, “Communicating With The Patient,” Staples Press, London.Google Scholar
  75. Lick, J.R., 1973, Statistical vs. clinical significance in research on the outcome of psychotherapy, Int. J. Ment. Health, 2:26–37.Google Scholar
  76. Lief, H.I., 1968, Sex education of medical students and doctors, Chap. 2, pp.19–33, in: “Human Sexuality in Medical Education and Practice,” Clarke E. Vincent, ed., Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  77. LoPiccolo, J., 1977, Methodological issues in research on treatment of sexual dysfunction. Paper presented for NIMH Conf. on methodology in research on human sexuality, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  78. Lovius, J., Lovius, B.B.J., and Ley, P., 1973, Comprehensibility of the literature given to patients at a dental hospital, J. Publ. Health Dent., 33:23–26.Google Scholar
  79. Lowe, J.C., and Mikulas, W.L., 1975, Use of written material in learning self-control of premature ejaculation, Psychol. Rep., 37:295–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mahoney, M.J., 1972, Research issues in self-management, Beh. Ther., 3:45–63.Google Scholar
  81. Mahoney, M.J., 1974, Self-reward and self-monitoring techniques for weight control, Beh. Ther., 5:48–57.Google Scholar
  82. Mahoney, M. J., Moura, N.G.M., and Wade, T.C., 1973, Relative efficacy of self-reward, self-punishment, and self-monitoring techniques for weight loss, J. Cons. & Clin. Psychol., 40:404–407.Google Scholar
  83. Mahoney, M.J., and Thoresen, C.E., 1974, “Self-Control: Power to the Person,” Brooks/Cole, Monterey, California.Google Scholar
  84. Marshall, W.L., Presse, L., and Andrews, W.R., 1976, A self-administered program for public speaking anxiety, Beh. Res. & Ther., 14:33–40.Google Scholar
  85. Marston, A.R., and Feldman, S.F., 1972, Toward the use of self-control in behaviour modification, J. Cons. & Clin. Psychol., 39:329–433.Google Scholar
  86. Mascarino, E., and Goode, D., 1940, Reading as a psychological aid in the hypoglycemic treatment of schizophrenia, Med. Bull. Vet. Admin., 117:61.Google Scholar
  87. Masters, W.H., and Johnson, V.E., 1970, “Human Sexual Inadequacy,” Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  88. Mathews, A., Bancroft, J., Whitehead, A., Hackmann, A., Julier, D., Bancroft, J., Gath, D., and Shaw, P., 1976, The behavioural treatment of sexual inadequacy: a comparative study, Beh. Res. & Ther., 14:427–436.Google Scholar
  89. Mathews, A., Teasdale, J., Munby, M., Johnston, D., and Shaw, P., 1977, A home-based treatment program for agoraphobia, Beh. Ther., 8:915–924.Google Scholar
  90. McCarthy, B.W., Ryan, M., and Johnson, F., 1975, “Sexual Awareness: A Practical Approach,” Scrimshaw Press, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  91. McMullen, S., and Rosen, R.C., 1979, Self-administered masturbation training in the treatment of primary orgasmic dysfunction, J, Cons, & Clin. Psychol., 47(5):912–918.Google Scholar
  92. McNair, D.M., Lorr, M., and Callahan, D.M., 1963, Patient and therapist influences on quitting psychotherapy, J. Consult. Psychol., 27:10–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Meichenbaum, D., 1977, “Cognitive-Behavior Modification: An Integrative Approach,” Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  94. Melamed, B., and Lang, P.J., 1967, Study of the automated de-sensitisation of fear. Paper read at the meeting of the Midwestern Psychol. Assoc, Chicago.Google Scholar
  95. Nelson, R.O., 1977, Methodological issues in assessment via self-monitoring, in: “Behavioral Assessment: New Directions in Clinical Psychology,” J.D. Cone & N.P. Hawkins, eds., Brunner/ Mazel, New York.Google Scholar
  96. Oathout, M.C., 1954, Books and mental patients, Libr. J., 79:405–410, (March 1).Google Scholar
  97. O’Brien, T.P., and Kelly, J.E., 1980, A comparison of self-directed and therapists-directed practice for fear reduction, Beh. Res. & Ther., 18:573–579.Google Scholar
  98. Peterson, M.C., 1935, The hospital library in relation to psychiatric research, Trans. Amer. Hosp. Assoc. 37:608–614.Google Scholar
  99. Phillips, R.E., Johnson, G.D., and Geyer, A., 1972, Self-administered systematic desensitisation, Beh. Res. & Ther., 10:93–96.Google Scholar
  100. Powell, J.W., Stone, A.R., and Frank, J.D., 1952, Group reading and group therapy: a concurrent test, Psychiat., 15:33–51.Google Scholar
  101. Raley, P.E., 1976, “Making Love: How to be Your Own Sex Therapist,” Dial Press, New York.Google Scholar
  102. Repucci, N.D., and Baker, B.L., 1969, Self-desensitisation: implications for treatment and teaching, in: “Advances in Behaviour Therapy, 1968,” R.D. Rubin & C.M. Franks, eds., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  103. Roman, M., 1957, “Reaching Delinquents Through Reading,” Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  104. Rosen, G.M., 1976a, The development and use of non-prescription behaviour therapies, Amer. Psychol., 31:139–141.Google Scholar
  105. Rosen, G.M., 1976b, A manual for self-administered progressive relaxation, in: “Practical Psychology,” J.P. Flanders, ed., Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  106. Rosen, G.M., 1977, Non-prescription behaviour therapies and other self-help treatments: a reply to Goldiamond, Amer. Psychol., 32:178–179.Google Scholar
  107. Rosen, G.M., 1978, Suggestions for an editorial policy on the review of self-help treatment books, Beh. Ther., 9:960.Google Scholar
  108. Rosen, G.M., Glasgow, R.E., and Barrera, M. Jr., 1976, A controlled study to assess the clinical efficacy of totally self-administered systematic desensitisation, J. Cons. & Clin. Psychol., 44:208–217.Google Scholar
  109. Rosen, G.M., Glasgow R.E., and Barrera, M. Jr., 1977, A two-year follow-up on systematic desensitisation with data pertaining to the external validity of laboratory fear assessment, J. Cons. & Clin. Psychol., 45:1188–1189.Google Scholar
  110. Roth, P.M., Caron, M.S., Ort, R.S., Berger, D.G., Albee, G.W., and Streeter, G.A., 1962, Patients1 beliefs about peptic ulcer and its treatment, Ann. Int. Med., 56:72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Rotter, J.B., 1966, Generalised expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement, Psychol. Monogs., 80: (1, whole No. 609).Google Scholar
  112. Ryan, M.J., 1957, Bibliotherapy and psychiatry: changing concepts 1937–1957, Spec. Librs., 48:197–199.Google Scholar
  113. Schallow, J.R., 1975, Locus of control and success at self-modification, Beh. Ther., 6:667–671.Google Scholar
  114. Schneck, J.M., 1944, Studies in bibliotherapy in a neuropsychiatric hospital, Amer. J. Phys. Med., 8:316–323.Google Scholar
  115. Secord, P.F., and Backman, C.W., 1964, “Social Psychology,” McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Shelton, J.L., 1979, Instigation therapy: using therapeutic homework to promote treatment gains, in: “Maximising Treatment Gains-Transfer Enhancement in Psychotherapy,” A.P. Goldstein & F.H. Kanfer, eds., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  117. Shrodes, C., 1949, “Bibliotherapy: A Theoretical and Clinical-Experimental Study,” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California.Google Scholar
  118. Shrodes, C., 1960, Bibliotherapy: an application of psychoanalytic theory, Amer. Imago, 17:311–319.Google Scholar
  119. Shrodes, C., 1961, The dynamics of reading: implications for bibliotherapy, Etc., 18:21–33.Google Scholar
  120. Slavson, S.R., 1950, “Analytic Group Psychotherapy With Children, Adolescents & Adults,” Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  121. Smith, G.P., and Coleman, R.E., 1977, Processes underlying generalisation through participant modelling with self-directed practice, Beh. Res. & Ther., 15:204–206.Google Scholar
  122. Spelman, M.S., and Ley, P., 1966, Knowledge of lung cancer and smoking habits, Brit. J. Soc. & Clin. Psychol., 5:207–210.Google Scholar
  123. Stokes, T.F., and Baer, D.M., 1977, An implicit technology of generalisation, J. App. Beh. Anal., 10:349–367.Google Scholar
  124. Stuart, R.B., and Davis, B., 1972, “Slim Chance in a Fat World: Behavioural Control of Obesity,” Research Press, Champaign, Illinois.Google Scholar
  125. Tews, R.M., 1970, Progress in bibliotherapy, in: “Advances in Librarianship (Vol I),” M.J. Voigt, ed., Academic Press, New York, pp.171–188.Google Scholar
  126. Watson, D.L., and Tharp, R.G., 1972, “Self-Directed Behaviour: Self-Modification for Personal Adjustment,” Brooks/Cole, Monterey, California.Google Scholar
  127. Wild, A.A., and Evans, S.J., 1968, The patient and the x-ray department, B.M.J., 2:607–609.Google Scholar
  128. Wilson, J.D., and Enoch, M.D., 1967, Estimation of drug rejection by schizophrenic in-patients, with analysis of clinical factors, Brit. J. Psychiat., 113:209–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Zeiss, R.A., 1977, “Self-administered Treatment for Premature Ejaculation: A Controlled Investigation,” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon.Google Scholar
  130. Zielinski, J.J., 1978, Maintenance of therapeutic gains: issues, problems and implementation, Prof. Psychol., 9(2):353–360.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael G. T. Dow
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentGartnavel Royal HospitalGlasgowScotland

Personalised recommendations