The Comparative Effectiveness of Instructions, Verbal Reinforcement and Tokens in Teaching Self-Help Skills to Long-Term Schizophrenic Patients

  • Douglas Fraser
  • David Black
  • Linda Cockram
  • Joanne Grimes


In a series of studies conducted in 1965 and 1968, Ayllon and Azrin demonstrated the importance of token reinforcement in maintaining job performance on and off the ward in a group of female chronic schizophrenic patients. They showed that the token contingencies were effective in altering voluntary job performances by manipulating the number of tokens that could be earned.


Schizophrenic Patient Baseline Period Multiple Baseline Design Token Reinforcement Ceiling Level 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas Fraser
    • 1
  • David Black
    • 1
  • Linda Cockram
    • 1
  • Joanne Grimes
    • 1
  1. 1.Royal Dundee Liff HospitalDundeeScotland

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