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Fast Neutron Activation Analysis of Fossil Fuels and Liquefaction Products

  • William D. Ehmann
  • David W. Koppenaal
  • Samir R. Khalil

Abstract

Fast neutron activation analysis has been applied to the direct, instrumental determination of oxygen and nitrogen in solid fossil fuels, their liquefaction products and various liquid and solid by-products. The matrices and the contents of oxygen and nitrogen of these materials are highly variable. Hence, no single set of comparator standards is suitable for the analysis of all samples. We have considered problems associated with neutron absorption/thermalization, gamma-ray self-absorption, and variable irradiation and counting geometries associated with the compositions, densities and physical states of the samples and standards. Two sets of liquid organic reagent primary standards and several solid standards have been selected and evaluated for use in the determination of oxygen and nitrogen in coals, coal conversion liquids, and residual solids. In the selection process we have also considered factors such as availability of the standard in high purity, well-defined stoichiometry, non-hygroscopic nature and simple elemental composition. Analyses of a number of coals, conversion products and NBS reference standards are presented. Problems associated with selecting a reproducible pre-analysis drying procedure for oxygen determinations in coal are discussed. It is suggested that a brief freeze-drying procedure may result in minimal matrix alteration and yield reproducible values for bulk oxygen contents of coals.

Keywords

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Nitrogen Determination Macroscopic Density Oxygen Determination Solid Fossil Fuel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • William D. Ehmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • David W. Koppenaal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Samir R. Khalil
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Mining and Minerals ResearchUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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