High-Temperature Corrosion of Surfaces and Protection Schemes

  • F. S. Pettit
Part of the Sagamore Army Materials Research Conference Proceedings book series (SAMC, volume 26)


When alloys are exposed to various environments at elevated temperatures, the thermodynamic conditions are usually such that reactions take place between the alloys and the environments. While a great variety of reactions are possible, those of most technical importance are the ones which can be used to inhibit subsequent reactions between the alloys and the environments. The science of protecting the surfaces of high temperature alloys requires consideration of the thermodynamics and kinetics of surface reactions as well as the factors that influence the properties of the resulting reaction product barriers. The protection scheme usually consists of forming the most protective reaction product barrier possible on the surfaces of the alloys. Of course the barriers which can be used are limited to some extent by the environments and by the structural requirements that must be satisfied by the alloys. Most often it is not practical to attempt to modify the environment. Most environments encountered in practice, however, contain some oxygen and oxides are the most protective reaction product barriers. The combined requirements of high temperature corrosion resistance and most structural properties are very frequently not compatible with each other in a given alloy system. This complication can be overcome to a large degree by using coatings on the structural alloys. The coating is designed for corrosion resistance and need satisfy only greatly reduced mechanican property requirements.


Oxide Scale Continuous Layer Structural Alloy Parabolic Rate Constant Oxide Barrier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    F. S. Pettit, C. S. Giggins, J. A. Goebel and E. J. Feiten, Chapter X, Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Resistance, in “Alloy and Microstructural Design”, J. K. Tien and G. S. Ansell, Editors, Academic Press, Inc. New York, (1976).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. S. Pettit, Design of Structural Alloys With High Temperature Corrosion Resistance, in “Fundamental Aspects of Structural Alloy Design”, R. I. Jaffee and B. A. Wilcox Editors, Plenum Press, New York, (1977).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Stringer, Stress Generation and Relief in Growing Oxide Films, Corrosion Sci., 10, 513 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. S. Wukusik and J. F. Collins, An Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy Containing Yttrium, Materials Research and Standards, 4, 637 (1964).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. S. Giggins and F. S. Pettit, Oxide Scale Adherence Mechanisms and the Effects of Yttrium, Oxide Particles and Externally Applied Loads on the Oxidation of NiCrAl and CoCrAl Alloys., ARL TR 75 - 0234, NTIS, Clearinghouse, Springfield, VA 22161.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. J. Feiten and F. S. Pettit, Development, Growth and Adhesion of AI2O3 on Platinum-Aluminum Alloys, Oxid, of Metals, 10, 189 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. H. Stott, G. C. Wood and J. G. Fountain, The Influence of Yttrium Additions on the Oxidation Resistance of a Direction- ally Solidified Ni-Al-Cr. C? Eutectic alloy, Oxid. Metals 14, 135 (1980).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. K. Tien and F. S. Pettit, Mechanisms of Oxide Adherence on Fe-25Cr-4AlY or Sc) Alloys, Met. Trans., 3, 1587 (1972).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. S. Giggins and F. S. Pettit, Corrosion of Metals and Alloys in Mixed Gas Environments at Elevated Temperatures, Oxid. of Metals, 14, 363 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. S. Bornestein and M. A. DeCrescente, The Role of Sodium in The Accelerated Oxidation Phenomenon Termed Sulfidation, Met. Trans. 2, 2875 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. A. Goebel, F. S. Pettit and G. W. Goward, Mechanisms for the Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Base Alloys, Met. Trans. 4, 261, (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Stringer, V. Nagarajan and D. P. Whittle, The Role of Chloride in the Hot Corrosion of Cobalt Base Alloys, Proc. of the Symposium on High Temperature Metal Halide Chemistry, D. L. Hildebrand and D. Cubicciotti, Eds., The Elctrochem. Soc. Princeton, N.J. 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. S. Giggins and F. S. Pettit, Hot Corrosion Degradation of Metals and Alloys - A Unified Theory, Final Report, Contract No. F 44620-76-C-0123, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Electronic and Solid State Sciences, Boiling AFB, D. C. 20332 (1979).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. H. Barkalow, J. A. Goebel and F. S. Pettit, Materials Problems in Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems, High Temperature Erosion-Corrosion by High Velocity (200 m/s) Particles, Prepared by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Group for Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif. 94304, EPRI CS-1448, Project 979-4, May, (1980).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. W. Goward, Protective Coatings, Chapter XII in Source Book on Materials for Elevated Temperature Applications, E. F. Bradley, Editor, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 44073, (1979).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Grisaffe, Coatings and Protections, Chapter XII in “The Superalloys”, C. T. Sims and W. Hagel, Editors, John Wiley and Sons, New York, (1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. S. Pettit
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Engineering and Research LaboratoryPratt and Whitney Aircraft GroupMiddletownUSA

Personalised recommendations