Advertisement

Integration of the Ames Bioassay and Chemical Analyses in an Epidemiological Cancer Incidence Study

  • C. Peter Flessel
  • Jerome J. Wesolowski
  • SuzAnne Twiss
  • James Cheng
  • Joel Ondo
  • Nadine Monto
  • Raymond Chan
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 22)

Abstract

The development of the Ames bioassay as an instrument for assessing public health problems involving mutagenicity and potential carcinogenicity has resembled the development of other quantitative techniques for assessing public health problems. The Ames test has developed from a qualitative assay of samples in simple matrices into a quantitative determination of complicated environmental mixtures, and its results are now being integrated with human epidemiological studies. Originally, the Ames test was used primarily to determine whether or not a compound was mutagenic (Ames, 1971). Soon quantitative methods were introduced (Ames et al., 1975), and a significant correlation between mutagenicity in the Ames test and carcinogenicity in animal bioassays emerged (McCann et al., 1975). Shortly thereafter, the test was applied to environmental mixtures in the analysis of air particulate material (Pitts et al., 1977; Talcott and Wei, 1977). Currently, the Ames test is used to detect mutagens in a variety of media and sample types. The rapidly expanding list of applications includes drinking water, cigarette smoke, auto exhaust, foods, drugs, and urine (Holstein et al., 1979). Although not a quantitative test in the sense of having well-established precision and accuracy, the Ames bioassay yields results that indicate relative mutagenicity. Thus, it is appropriate to consider its use in epidemiological cancer studies.

Keywords

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mutagenic Activity Total Suspend Particulate Ames Test Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AIHL Method 67. 1975. Determination of Total Organic Materials in Atmospheric Particulate Matter. Air and Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  2. Ames, B. 1971. The detection of chemical mutagens with enteric bacteria. In: Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods for their Detection, Vol. 1. A. Hollaender, ed. Plenum Press: New York. pp. 267–282.Google Scholar
  3. Ames, B. J. McCann, and E. Yamasaki. 1975. Method for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian- microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Res. 31: 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BAAQMD Method. 1977. Total Suspended Particulate Gravimetric Analysis Procedure. Bay Area Air Quality Management District, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  5. BAAQMD Method N-7. 1976. Determination of Nitrate in Glass Fiber Hi-Vol Filters. Bay Area Air Quality Management District, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  6. BAAQMD Method S-42. 1976. Determination of Sulfate in Glass Fiber Hi-Vol Filters. Bay Area Air Quality Management District, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  7. Orseth, O., P. Flessel, N. Monto, J. Wesolowski, T. Parker, and P. Ouchida. (1980). Monitoring for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and mutagenic activity in products and emissions from a gasifier demonstration project. In: Safe Handling of Chemical Carcinogens, Mutagens, and Teratogens-A Chemist’s Viewpoint, Vol 2. D. Waters, ed. Ann Arbor Press: Ann Arbor, MI. pp. 635–651.Google Scholar
  8. Daisey, J., M. Leyko, and T. Kniep. 1979. Source identification and allocation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the New York City aerosol: methods and applications. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. P. Jones and P. Leber, eds. Ann Arbor Science: Ann Arbor, MI. pp. 201–215.Google Scholar
  9. Flessel, P. 1977. Mutagenicity of Particulate Matter. Presented at the Third Interagency Symposium on Air Monitoring Quality Assurance, Air, and Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  10. Gusten, H., and G. Heinrich. 1979. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the lower atmosphere of Karlsruhe. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. P. Jones and P. Leber, eds. Ann Arbor Science: Ann Arbor, MI. pp. 357–370.Google Scholar
  11. Holstein, M., J. McCann, F. Angelosanto, and W. Nichols. 1979. Short-term tests for carcinogens and mutagens. Mutation Res. 65: 133–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lowry, O., N. Rosebrough, A. Farr, and R. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265–271.Google Scholar
  13. Mason, P., and F. McKay. 1973. U.S. Cancer Mortality by County, 1950–1969. DHEW Publication No. (NIH)-74–615. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  14. McCann, J., E. Choi, E. Yamasaki, and B. Ames. 1975. Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in the Salmonella/microsome test: Assay of 300 chemicals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 5135–5139.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moore, H. 1976. Application of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry to the Determination of Lead in Atmospheric Particulate Matter Collected on High-Volume Glass Fiber Filters. AIHL Report 183, Air and Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  16. Pitts, J., D. Grosjean, and T. Mischke. 1977. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate organic pollutants. Toxicol. Lett. 1: 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pitts, J., K. Van Cauwenberghe, D. Grosjean, J. Schmid, D. Fitz, W. Belser, G. Knudson, and P. Hynds. 1979. Chemical and microbiological studies of mutagenic pollutants in real and simulated atmospheres. In: Application of Short-term Bioassays in the Fractionation and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures. M. Waters, S. Nesnow, J. Huisingh, S. Sandhu, and L. Claxton, eds. Plenum Press: New York. pp. 355–378.Google Scholar
  18. Sawicki, E., W. Elbert, T. Hauzer, F. Fox, and T. Stanley. 1960. Benzo(a)pyrene content of the air of American communities. Am. Ind. Hyg. J. 21: 443–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Talcott, R., and E. Wei. 1977. Airborne mutagens bioassayed in Salmonella typhimurium. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 58: 449–451.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Peter Flessel
    • 1
  • Jerome J. Wesolowski
    • 1
  • SuzAnne Twiss
    • 1
  • James Cheng
    • 1
  • Joel Ondo
    • 1
  • Nadine Monto
    • 1
  • Raymond Chan
    • 1
  1. 1.Air and Industrial Hygiene LaboratoryCalifornia Department of Health ServicesBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations