Advertisement

Evaluation of Collection and Extraction Methods for Mutagenesis Studies on Ambient Air Particulate

  • R. Jungers
  • R. Burton
  • L. Claxton
  • J. Lewtas Huisingh
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 22)

Abstract

The extractable organics associated with air particles have been shown to be carcinogenic (Hueper et al., 1962; Leiter et al., 1942) and mutagenic in a short-term microbial bioassay (Lewtas Huisingh, 1980; Teranishi et al., 1977). The identification and characterization of the potentially hazardous chemical components associated with ambient air particles requires that efficient collection and extraction methods be developed and validated. It is important that the original chemical composition of the particle-bound organics be maintained through collection and extraction to establish that the bioassay results are directly relatable to the chemistry of the original organics as they exist on particles in the atmosphere. The particles of major interest are those that are in the inhalable (< 15 μm) or respirable (< 5 μm) size range and therefore can be trapped in the human respiratory tract. Several studies have shown that the organics associated with ambient air particles are more mutagenic in the smaller (respirable) particle size range (Huisingh, 1980; Teranashi et al., 1977).

Keywords

Total Suspended Particulate Ozone Generation Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon Collector Plate Negative Corona 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ames, B.N., J. McCann, and E. Yamasaki. 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/ mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Res. 31: 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bjfrseth, A. 1977. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter by glass capillary gas chromatography. Anal. Chim. Acta 94: 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bjfrseth, A., O. Bjcprseth, and P.E. Fjeldstad. 1978. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in industrial atmospheres. I. Analysis of the PAH content in an aluminum reduction plant. Scand. J. Work Environ. Hlth 4: 212–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Code of Federal Regulations. 1980. Title 40, part 50, appendix B. Reference Method for Determination of Suspended Particulates in the Atmosphere (High Volume Method). General Service Administration: Washington, DC. pp. 531–535.Google Scholar
  5. Committee on Biological Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants. 1972. Particulate polycyclic organic matter. National Academy of Science: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. Henry, W.M., and R.I. Mitchell. 1978. Development of a large sample collector of respirable particulate matter. EPA–600/4–78–009. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  7. Hoffman, D., and E.L. Wynder. 1976. In: Chemical Carcinogens. C.E. Searl, ed. ACS Monograph, 173, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. pp. 324–365.Google Scholar
  8. Hueper, W.C., P. Kobin, E.C. Tabor, W.W. Payne, H. Falk, and E. Sawicki. 1962. Carcinogenesis bioassays on air pollutants. Arch. Pathol. 74: 89–116.Google Scholar
  9. Huisingh, J. Lewtas. 1980. Bioassay of particulate organic matter from ambient air. Presented at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Second Symposium on the Application of Short-term Bioassays in the Fractionation and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures, Williamsburg, VA.Google Scholar
  10. Leiter, J., M.B. Shimkin, and M.J. Shear. 1942. Production of subcutaneous sarcomas in mice with tars extracted from atmospheric dusts. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 3: 155–165.Google Scholar
  11. McFarland, A., and C.E. Rodes. 1979. Characteristics of aerosol samplers used in ambient air monitoring. Presented at the 86th National Meeting of Chemical Engineers, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  12. Mitchell, R.I., W.M. Henry, and N.C. Henderson. 1978. Fabrication, optimization, and evaluation of a massive air volume sampler of sized respirable particulate matter. EPA–600/4–78–031. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  13. National Science Foundation, Subcommittee on Ozone and Other Photochemical Oxidants. 1977. Ozone and other photochemical oxidants. Printing and Publishing Office, National Academy of Sciences: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  14. Pellizzari, E.D., L.W. Little, C. Sparacino, T.J. Hughes, L. Claxton, and M.D. Waters. 1979. Integrating microbiological and chemical testing into the screening of air samples for potential mutagenicity. In: Application of Short-term Bioassays in the Fractionation and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures. M.D. Waters, S. NesnowGoogle Scholar
  15. J.L. Huisingh, S.S. Sandhu, and L. Claxton, eds. Plenum Press: New York. pp. 382–418.Google Scholar
  16. Pitts, J.N., D. Grosjean, J.M. Mischke, V.F. Simmon, and D. Poole. 1977. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate organic pollutants. Toxicol. Lett. 1: 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Teranashi, K., K. Hamada, N. Tekeda, and H. Watanabe. 1977. Mutagenicity of the tar in air pollutants. Proceedings of the 4th International Clean Air Congress, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 33–36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Jungers
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Burton
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. Claxton
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Lewtas Huisingh
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Monitoring Systems LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  2. 2.Health Effects Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations