Mutagenicity of Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Products

  • Rita Schoeny
  • David Warshawsky
  • Lois Hollingsworth
  • Mary Hund
  • George Moore
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 22)


As it becomes evident that the shortage of oil resources is not a transient phenomenon, emphasis is being directed to the use of domestic coal. Increased use of coal, however, adds coal combustion products to the pollution burden. Although various technologies are being developed to produce cleaner-burning fuels from coal, such as gaseous fuels, de-ashed low-sulfur boiler fuels, and synthetic crude oils, problems remain in the production of these materials.


Coal Gasification Electric Power Research Institute Strain TA98 Cigarette Smoke Condensate Synthetic Fuel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ames, B.N., J. McCann, and E. Yamasaki. 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/ mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation. Res. 31:347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Battelle. 1974. Liquefaction and chemical refining of coal. Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH. pp. 52–54.Google Scholar
  3. Bingham, E. 1975. Carcinogenic potency of oil fractions derived from fossil fuels. Presented at Workshop on Health Effects of Coal and Oil Shale Mining Conversion Utilization, Department of Environmental Health, Kettering Laboratory, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  4. Bridges, B.A. 1976. Short-term screening tests for carcinogens. Nature 261:195–200.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Committee 17 Report, Environmental Mutagen Society USA. 1975. Environmental mutagenic hazards. Science 187:503–514.Google Scholar
  6. Electric Power Research Institute. 1975. Status Report of Wilsonville SRC Pilot Plant. Electric Power Research Institute. May. Pleasanton, CA. p. 32.Google Scholar
  7. Energy Research and Development Administration. 1976. Fossil energy research program of the Energy Research and Development Administration, fiscal year 1977. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  8. Epler, J.L. 1978. The uee of short-term tests in the isolation and identification of chemical mutagens in complex mixtures. In: Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods for their Detection, Vol. VI. A. Hollaender, ed. Plenum Press: New York. pp. 1–54.Google Scholar
  9. Epler, J.L., F.W. Larimer, C.E. Nix, T. Ho, and T.K. Rao. (in press). Comparative mutagenesis of test materials from synthetic fuel technologies. In: Second International Conference on Environmental Mutagens. D. Scott, F.H. Sobels, and B.A. Bridges, eds. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press: Amsterdam, Holland.Google Scholar
  10. Freudenthal, R.I., G.A. Lutz, and R.I. Mitchell. 1975. Carcinogenic potential of coal and coal conversion products. Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  11. Ketcham, N., and R.W. Norton. 1960. The hazards to health in the hydrogenation of coal. III. The industrial hygiene studies. Arch. Environ. Hlth. 1:194–207.Google Scholar
  12. Kier, L.D., E. Yamasaki, and B.N. Ames. 1974. Detection of mutagenic activity in cigarette smoke condensates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71:4159–4163.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kornreich, M.R. 1976. Coal conversion processes: potential carcinogenic risk. MTR-7155, MITRE Technical Report, 4–14 to 4–16.Google Scholar
  14. Loper, J.C., D.R. Lang, R.S. Schoeny, B.B. Richmond, P.M. Gallegher, and C.C. Smith. 1978. Residue organic mixtures from drinking water show in vitro mutagenic and transforming activity. J. Toxicol. Environ. Hlth. 4:919–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McCann, J., and B.N. Ames. 1976. Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in the Salmonella/microsome test: assay of 300 chemicals: discussion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:950–954.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McCann, J., E. Choi, E. Yamasaki, and B.N. Ames. 1975. Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in the Salmonella/microsomal test: assay of 300 chemicals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72:5135–5139.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Coal Technology Program Annual Report. 1975. ORNL-5069. Oak Ridge, TN. p. 52.Google Scholar
  18. Purchase, I.F.H., E. Longstaff, J. Ashby, J.A. Styles, D. Anderson, P.A. Lefevre, and F.R. Westwood. 1976. Evaluation of six short-term tests for detecting organic chemical carcinogens and recommendation for their use. Nature 264:624–627.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sato, S., Y. Seino, T. Ohka, T. Yahagi, M. Nagao, T. Matsushima, and T. Sugimura. 1977. Mutagenicity of smoke condensates from cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco. Cancer Lett. 3:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sexton, R.J. 1960a. The hazards to health in the hydrogenation of coal. I. An introductory statement on general information, process description, and a definition of the problem. Arch. Environ. Hlth. 1:181–186.Google Scholar
  21. Sexton, R.J. 1960b. The hazards to health in the hydrogenation of coal. IV. The control program and its effects. Arch. Environ. Hlth. 1:208–231.Google Scholar
  22. Simmon, V.F. 1979. In vitro mutagenicity assays of chemical carcinogens and related compounds with Salmonella typhimurium. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 62:893–899.Google Scholar
  23. Swansiger, J.T. 1974. Liquid coal composition analysis by mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 46:730–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. TRW Systems and Energy. 1976. Carcinogens relating to coal conversion processes. ERDA Contract E(49–18)-2213. Washington, DC. pp. 26–28.Google Scholar
  25. Weil, C.S. and N.I. Condra. 1960. The hazards to health in the hydrogenation of coal. II. Carcinogenic effect of materials on the skin of mice. Arch. Environ. Hlth. 1:187–193.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Schoeny
    • 1
  • David Warshawsky
    • 1
  • Lois Hollingsworth
    • 1
  • Mary Hund
    • 1
  • George Moore
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental HealthUniversity of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Department of EnergyPittsburgh Energy Technology CenterPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations