Detection of Organic Mutagens in Water Residues
In previous studies (Loper and Lang, 1978; Loper et al., 1978; Lang et al., in press; Kurzepa et al., in press), we used shortterm bioassays to demonstrate the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and toxicity of residues prepared from samples of drinking water from six U. S. cities. The samples were processed by Gulf South Research Institute (New Orleans, LA), using reverse osmosis plus XAD resin sorption-desorption as described by Kopfler et al. (1977). Using the Ames test, we found city-specific patterns of dose-dependent mutagenesis that were essentially independent of the microsomal activation system. One or more samples from each city showed reproducible transformation frequencies at least three times the spontaneous frequency. Focus formation induced by these samples was equivalent to malignant transformation as verified in nude mice. In these studies, quantitation of mutagenic and transformation responses were complicated by the toxicity and heterogeneity of the complex residue mixtures.
KeywordsDrinking Water Ames Test Water Chlorination Water Residue Microsomal Activation
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