Alternative Strategies and Methods for Concentrating Chemicals from Water

  • Frederick C. Kopfler
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 22)


The concentration of organic matter in water can range from several hundred micrograms per liter in groundwater to many milligrams per liter in industrial or sewage effluents. Generally, the biologically active materials will be present in concentrations too low to be detected by testing the small amount of aqueous sample that can be incorporated directly into a biological test system. The organic matter in drinking water and wastewater is a complex mixture and defies complete characterization by current technology. Consequently, these materials cannot be purchased or synthesized for biological testing, but must be obtained from the water to be evaluated. A paradoxical situation results, since the evaluation of methods for concentrating an organic substance depends on the existence of reliable analytical methods for the quantitative analysis of the substance. Therefore most of the data available concerning organic concentration techniques are based on performance with a few specific compounds or on general parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC) or total organic halogen.


Total Organic Carbon Reverse Osmosis Chlorine Residual Reverse Osmosis System Concentrate Water Sample 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aikin, G.R., E.M. Thurman, R.L. Malcolm, and H.F. Walton. 1979. Comparison of XAD macroporous resins for the concentration of fulvic acid from aqueous solution. Anal. Chem. 51: 1799–1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baird, R., J. Gute, C. Jacks, R. Jenkins, L. Neisess, B. Scheybeler, R. Van Sluis, and W. Yanko. (1980). Health effects of water reuse: a combination of toxicological and chemical methods for assessment. In: Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact and Health Effects, Vol. 3. R.L. Jolley, W.A. Brungs, and R.B. Cumming, eds. Ann Arbor Press: Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, R.A. 1969. Trace organic contaminant concentration by freezing-III. ice washing. Water Res. 3: 717–730.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, R.A. 1970. Trace organic contaminant concentration by freezing-IV. ionic effects. Water Res. 4: 559–573.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buelow, R.W., J.K. Carswell, and J.M. Symons. 1973. An improved method for determining organics by activated carbon adsorption and solvent extraction. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 65: 57–72.Google Scholar
  6. Carbridenc, R. and A. Sidka. 1979. Extraction des micropollutants organiques des eaux en vue de la realisation d’essais biologiques. Presented at the European Symposium on the Analysis of Organic Micropollutants in Water, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany.Google Scholar
  7. Chriswell, C.D., R.L. Ericson, G.A. Junk, K.W. Lee, J.S. Fritz, and H.J. Svec. 1977. Comparison of macroreticular resin and activated carbon as sorbents. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 69: 669–674.Google Scholar
  8. Crathorne, B., C.B. Watts, and M. Fielding. 1979. The analysis of non-volatile organic compounds in water by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 185: 671–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dressler, M. 1979. Extraction of trace amounts of organic compounds from water with porous organic polymers. J. Chromatogr. 165: 167–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gustafson, R.L., and J. Paleos. 1971. Interactions responsible for the selective adsorption of organics on organic surfaces. In: Organic Compounds in Aquatic Environments. S.J. Faust and J.V. Hunter, eds. Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York. pp. 213–237.Google Scholar
  11. Hemon, D., P. Lazor, R. Cabridenc, A. Sidka, B. Festy, C. Gerinroze, and I. Chouroulinkov. 1978. I: Micropollution organique des eaux destinees a la consummation humaine. Rev. Epidem. et Sante Publ. 26: 441–450.Google Scholar
  12. Johnston, J.B., and J.N. Herron. 1979. A Routine Water Monitoring Test for Mutagenic Compounds. UIUC-WRC-79–0141. University of Illinois: Urbana, IL. 87 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Jolley, R.L., S. Katz, J.E. Morchek, W.W. Pitt, and W.T. Rainey. 1975. Analyzing organics in dilute aqueous solution. Chem. Tech. 5: 312–318.Google Scholar
  14. Junk, G.A., J.J. Richard, M.D. Grieser, D. Witiak, J.D. Witiak, M.D. Arguello, R. Vick, H.J. Svec, J.S. Fritz, and G.V. Calder. 1974. Use of macroreticular resins in the analysis of water for trace organic contaminants. J. Chromatogr. 99: 745–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kopfler, F.C., E.W. Coleman, R.C. Melton, R.C. Tardiff, S.C. Lynch, and J.K. Smith. 1977. Extraction and identification of organic micropollutants: reverse osmosis method. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 298: 20–30.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Logsdon, O.J., K.E. Nottingham, and T.O. Meiggs. 1977. Formation of nitrosamines and chlorocycloalkanes during analytical procedures. Presented at the 91st meeting of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  17. Malcolm, R.L., E.M. Thurman, and G.R. Aiken. 1977. The concentration and fractionation of trace organic solutes from natural and polluted water using XAD-8, methylmethacrylate resin. In: Trace Substances in Environmental Health, Volume XI. D.D. Hemphill, ed. University of Missouri: Columbia, MO. pp. 307–314.Google Scholar
  18. Modell, M., R.P. deFilippi, and V. Krukonis. 1978. Regeneration of activated carbon with supercritical carbon dioxide. Presented before the Division of Environmental Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Miami, FL.Google Scholar
  19. Pitt, W.W., and C.D. Scott. 1973. Measurement of molecular organic contaminants in polluted water. In: Ecology and Analysis of Trace Contaminants. ORNL-NSF-EATC-1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Oak Ridge, TN. pp. 309–331.Google Scholar
  20. Shapiro, J. 1961. Freezing out, a safe technique for concentration of dilute solutions. Science 133: 2063–2064.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thurman, E.M., R.L. Malcolm, and G.R. Aiken. 1978. Prediction of capacity factors for aqueous organic solutes adsorbed on a porous acrylic resin. Anal. Chem. 50: 775–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick C. Kopfler
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Effects Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations