Microbial Adjuvants and Immune Responsiveness

  • Arthur G. Johnson


My concern with immunomodulation began in 1952 as a member of a research team headed by Dr. Maurice Landy at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Our objective was to purify the two known immunogenic components of typhoid vaccine, the Vi and 0 antigens, such that effective immunogenicity might be retained with elimination of the well known toxicity of the whole organism vaccine in use at that time. The Vi antigen turned out to be an aminogalactouronic acid which was highly effective in mouse protection tests, and presented no problem with regard to toxicity. In purifying the 0 antigen, we started with the Voivin product and with the expertise of our two biochemists, Drs. Marion Webster and Jerry Sagin, and through ammonium sulfate precipitations in the presence of high concentrations of sodium chloride we ended up with a product with only 0.6% nitrogen of which 0.4% was attributable to hexosamine (49). Such lipopolysaccharides (LPS) proved to be very active as antigens, but were much less protective than the Vi. They also exhibited potent endotoxic activity with extraordinary, diverse properties (30, 31).


Antibody Formation Pertussis Vaccine Bacterial Endotoxin Adjuvant Action Thymus Weight 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur G. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology/Immunology School of MedicineUniversity of MinnesotaDuluthUSA

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