A Historical View of Blacks’ Distrust of Psychiatry

  • Maxie C. MaultsbyJr.


In 1978, I was an invited speaker at a conference on the mental health needs of American blacks, sponsored by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Specifically, the conference participants were concerned about the relatively low utilization by needy blacks of readily available, federally supported mental health services.


Mental Health Mental Health Service Mental Health Professional Black Patient Black People 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bandura, A. Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. Bean, R. B. Some racial peculiarities of the negro brain. American Journal of Anatomy, 1906, 5, 353–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bevis, W. M. Psychological traits of the southern negro with observations as to some of his psychoses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1921, 1, 69–78.Google Scholar
  4. Billingsley, A. Black families in white America. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.Google Scholar
  5. Boyd, N. Black families in therapy. Psychiatric Spectator, Sandoz: 1979, 11, 21–25.Google Scholar
  6. Brandsma, J. M., Maultsby, M.C., & Welsh, R. The outpatient treatment of alcoholism; A review and comparative study. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  7. Broverman, I. K., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F. E., Rosenkrantz, P. S., and Vogel, S. R. Sex role stereotypes and clinical judgments of mental health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1970, 34, 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burt, C. Intelligence and social mobility. British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 1961, 14, 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheek, D. Assertive black, puzzled white. San Luis Obispo, Calif.: Impact Publishers, 1976.Google Scholar
  10. Dorfman, D. T. The Cyril Burt question: New finds. Science, 1978, 201, 1177–1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ellis, A. Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stewart, 1962.Google Scholar
  12. Ellis, A., & Grieger, R. (Eds.), R.E.T.: Handbook of rational emotive therapy. New York: Springer, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. Foreyt, J., and Rathzan, D. Cognitive behavior therapy. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. Freedman, A. M., Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. Modern synopsis of comprehensive textbook of psychiatry II. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1978.Google Scholar
  15. Garfield, S. L., and Bergin, A. C. Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change, (2nd ed). New York: Wiley, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. Goldfried, M. S., and Davison, G. C. Clinical behavior therapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976.Google Scholar
  17. Hall, G. S. Adolescence (Vol. 2). New York: Appleton, 1904.Google Scholar
  18. Harris, L. A., & Associates. A study of attitudes toward racial and religious minorities and toward women. Prepared for the National Conference of Christians and Jews; study number S2829B, November, 1978.Google Scholar
  19. Hollingshead, A. B., & Redlich, F. C. Social class and mental illness. New York: Wiley, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jarvis, E. Insanity among the coloured populations of the free states. American Journal of Medical Science, 1844, 8, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jarvis, E. Insanity among the coloured population of the free states. The American Journal of Insanity, 1852, 8, 268–282.Google Scholar
  22. Jensen, A. R. How much can we boost I.Q. and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review, 1969, 39, 1–123.Google Scholar
  23. Jones, F. The Black psychologist as consultant and therapist. In R.L. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.Google Scholar
  24. Kamin, L. Science and Politic IQ. Potomac, Maryland: Erlbaum, 1974.Google Scholar
  25. Kardiner, A., & Ovesey, L. The mark of oppression. New York: World Publishing, 1962.Google Scholar
  26. Katz, J. H. White awareness. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  27. Mahoney, M. J. Personal science: A cognitive learning therapy. In A. Ellis & R. M. Grieger (Eds.), Handbook of theory and practice. New York: Springer, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. Mall, F. P. On several anatomical characters of the human brain said to vary according to race and sex. American Journal of Anatomy, 1909, 9, 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maultsby, M. C. Systematic written homework in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, Theory, Research and Practice, 1971, 5, 195–198.Google Scholar
  30. Maultsby, M. C. Patients’ opinions of the therapeutic relationship in rational behavior therapy. Psychological Reports, 1975, 37, 795–798. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maultsby, M. C. Help yourself to happiness through rational self-counseling. New York: Institute for Rational Living, 1975. (b)Google Scholar
  32. Maultsby, M. C. The evolution of rational behavior therapy. In J. L. Wolfe and E. Brand (Eds.), Twenty years of rational therapy. New York: Institute for Rational Living, 1977.Google Scholar
  33. Maultsby, M. C. A million dollars for your hangover. Lexington, Ky: Rational Self-Help Books, 1978.Google Scholar
  34. Maultsby, M. C. Rational behavior therapy in groups. In G. M. Gazda (Ed.), Innovations in group psychotherapy. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1979.Google Scholar
  35. Maultsby, M. C. Rational behavior therapy. In S. M. Turner and R. T. Jones (Eds.), Behavior therapy and black populations: Psychosocial issues and empirical findings. New York: Plenum Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  36. Maultsby, M. C., & Graham, D. T. Controlled study of the effects on self-reported maladaptive traits, anxiety scores and psychosomatic disease attitudes. Jowrwal of Psychiatric Research, 1974, 10, 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maultsby, M. C., Winkler, P. J., & Norton, J. C. Semiautomated psychotherapy with preventative features. Journal of the International Academy of Preventative Medicine, 1975, Fall, 27–37.Google Scholar
  38. Maultsby, M. C., Costello, R. T., & Carpenter, L. C. Classroom emotional education and optimum health. Journal of the International Academy of Preventative Medicine, 1976, Dec, 24–31.Google Scholar
  39. Meichenbaum, D. Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  40. Morais, H. M. The history of the negro in medicine. New York: Publishers Company, 1967.Google Scholar
  41. O’Malley, M. Psychosis in the colored race. Journal of Insanity, 1914, 71, 309–336.Google Scholar
  42. Pinderhughes, G. A. Racism and psychotherapy. In C. V. Willie, B. M. Kramer, & B. M. Brown (Eds.), Racism and mental health. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  43. Prudhomme, C., & Musto, D. F. Historical perspectives on mental health and racism in the United States. In C. V. Willie, B. M. Kramer, and B. M. Brown (Eds.), Racism and mental health. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  44. Reik, M. Cyril Burt’s data on I.Q.: Taxing the numbers. Frontiers of Psychiatry, 1979, 9, 5.Google Scholar
  45. Ross, G. Reducing irrational personal traits, trait anxiety and interpersonal needs in high school students. Journal of measurement and evaluation in guidance, 1978, 11, 44–50.Google Scholar
  46. Ruhnow, M. Federal Probation Officer, North District of Texas. Personal Communication, 1977.Google Scholar
  47. Schwab, J. J. In Lipsitt, D. R. Major issues in mental health, Psychiatric Opinion, 1979, 16, 40–43.Google Scholar
  48. Stampp, K. M. The peculiar institution: Slavery in the ante-bellum South. New York: Knopf, 1956.Google Scholar
  49. Stanton, W. The Leopard’s spots: Scientific attitudes toward race in America, 1815–1859. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  50. Tennov, D. Psychotherapy: The hazardous cure. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  51. Thomas, A., & Sillen, S. Racism and psychiatry. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1972.Google Scholar
  52. Thompson, C. Interpersonal psychoanalysis. In M. R. Green (Ed.), Interpersonal Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books, 1964.Google Scholar
  53. Wade, M. I.Q. and heredity: Suspicion of fraud beclouds classic experiment. Science, 1976, 194, 916–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weatherly, D. G. Race and marriage. American Journal of Sociology, 1910, 15, 433–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. White, W. A. Geographic distribution of insanity. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1903, 30, 258–279.Google Scholar
  56. Willie, C. V., Kramer, M. B., & Brown, B. S. Racism and mental health. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  57. Wolpe, J., & Lazarus, A. A. Behavior therapy techniques. New York: Pergamon Press, 1966.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maxie C. MaultsbyJr.

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations