Advertisement

Pesticides for Stored Products

  • J. R. Plimmer

Abstract

If commodities are to be stored, transported, or processed, they must be protected from deterioration and loss caused by pests. Such losses place a heavy economic burden on the consumer, and their consequences may be disastrous in times of food shortage. Statistics indicate the magnitude of the problem. For example, in a 1947 FAO Survey it was reported that insects destroy at least 5% of the world production of cereal grains. In 29 countries the loss of cereals was 23,355,000 tons, of which 50% was attributed to insects (Cotton and Ashby, 1952).

Keywords

Ethylene Oxide Juvenile Hormone Methyl Bromide Store Product Insect Growth Regulator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alumot, E., Nachtomi, E., Bielorai, R., and Harduf, Z., 1974, Significance of fumigant residues in animal feed, in: Isotope Tracer Studies of Chemical Residues in Food and the Agricultural Environment, pp. 3–10, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.Google Scholar
  2. Amir, D., and Volcani, R., 1965, Effect of dietary ethylene dibromide on bull semen, Nature (London) 206:99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, E. L., Jr., Zack, M., Miles, J. W., Alderman, L., Warren, M., Dobbin, R. D., Miller, S., and Teeters, W. R., 1978, Epidemic malathion poisoning in Pakistan malaria workers, Lancet 1978-1:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barak, A. V., and Burkholder, W. E., 1976, Trapping studies with dermestid sex pheromones, Environ. Entomol. 5:111.Google Scholar
  5. Bierer, B. W., and Vickers, C. L., 1959, The effect on egg size and production of fungicide-treated and fumigated grains fed to hens, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 134:452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brady, U. E., Jay, E. G., Redlinger, L. M., and Pearman, G., 1975, Mating activity of Plodia interpunctella and Cadra cautella during exposure to synthetic sex pheromone in the field, Environ. Entomol. 4:441.Google Scholar
  7. Bridges, R. G., 1955, The fate of labelled insecticide residues in food products. III. N-Methylation as a result of fumigating wheat with methyl bromide, J. Sci. Food Agric. 6:261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brieger, G., 1973, Juvenile hormone analogue in diet of the waxmoth Galleria mellonella, Naturwissenschaften 60:261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, A. W. A., 1977, The progression of resistance mechanisms developed against insecticides, in: Pesticide Chemistry in the 20th Century (J. R. Plimmer, ed.), pp. 21–38. ACS Symposium Series No. 37, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burkholder, W. E., 1973, Black carpet beetle: Reduction of mating by megatomoic acid, the sex pheromone, J. Econ. Entomol. 66:1327.Google Scholar
  11. Burkholder, W. E., 1976, Applications of pheromones for manipulating insect pests of stored products, in: Insect Pheromones and Their Applications (T. Kono and S. Ishii, eds.), pp. 111–122, Proceedings of a Symposium, Nagaoka and Tokyo, Japan, December 8-11, 1976, Japan Plant Protection Association, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  12. Burkholder, W. E., 1977, Manipulation of insect pests of stored products, in: Chemical Control of Insect Behavior (H. H. Shorey and J. J. McKelvey, Jr., eds.), pp. 345–351, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Champ, B. R., and Dyte, C. E., 1976, Report of the FAO Global Survey of Pesticide Susceptibility of Stored Grain Pests, FAO Plant Production and Protection Series No. 5, Rome.Google Scholar
  14. Cotton, R. T., and Ashby, W., 1952, Insect pests of stored grains and seed, in: Insects, pp. 620–639, 1952 Yearbook of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  15. DeLong, D. M., 1962, Beer cases and soft drink cartons as insect distributors, Pest Control 30(7): 14.Google Scholar
  16. Dyte, C. E., 1972, Resistance to synthetic juvenile hormone in a strain of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, Nature (London) 238:48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eto, M., 1974, Organophosphorus Pesticides: Organic and Biological Chemistry, CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio.Google Scholar
  18. Fishbein, L., 1976, Potential hazards of fumigant residues, Environ. Health Perspect. 14:39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fowler, D. L., and Mahan, J. N., 1976, The Pesticide Review 1975, U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Stabilization Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  20. Gardner, A. M, Damico, J. N., Hansen, E. A., Lustig, E., and Storherr, R. W. 1969, Previously unreported homolog of malathion found as residue on crops, J. Agric. Food Chem. 17:1181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Krueger, H. R., and O’Brien, R. D., 1959, Relationship between metabolism and differential toxicity of malathion in insects and mice, J. Econ. Entomol. 52:1063.Google Scholar
  22. Levinson, H. Z., 1975, Possibilities of using insectistatics and pheromones in pest control, Natur-Wissenschaften 62:272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Levinson, H. Z., and Levinson, A. R., 1979, Trapping of storage insects by sex and food attractants as a tool of integrated control, in: Chemical Ecology: Odour Communication in Animals (F. J. Ritter, ed.), pp. 327–341, Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  24. McGovern, T. P., Burden, G. S., and Beroza, M., 1975, w-Alkanesulfonamides as repellents for the German cockroach [Orthoptera (Dictyoptera):Blatellidae], J. Med. Entomol. 12:387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Metwally, M. M., Sehnal, F., and Landa, V., 1972, Reduction of fecundity and control of the khapra beetle by juvenile hormone mimics, J. Econ. Entomol. 65:1603.Google Scholar
  26. Nachtomi, E., 1970, The metabolism of ethylene dibromide in the rat: The enzymic reaction with glutathione in vitro and in vivo, Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:2853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Olson, W. A., Habermann, R. T., Weisburger, E. K., Ward, I. M., and Weisburger, J. H., 1973, Induction of stomach cancer in rats and mice by halogenated aliphatic fumigants, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51:1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Pellegrini, G., and Santi, R., 1972, Potentiation of toxicity of organophosphorus compounds containing carboxylic ester functions toward warm-blooded animals by some organophosphorus impurities, J. Agric. Food Chem. 20:944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Quistad, G. B., Staiger, L. E., and Schooley, D. A., 1974, Environmental degradation of the insect growth regulator methoprene (isopropyl (2E, 4E)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadi-enoate). I. Metabolism by alfalfa and rice, J. Agric. Food Chem. 22:582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Quistad, G. B., Staiger, L. E., and Schooley, D. A., 1975a, Environmental degradation of the insect growth regulator methoprene (isopropyl (2E, 4E)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-do-decadienoate. III. Photodecomposition, J. Agric. Food Chem. 23:299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Quistad, G. B., Staiger, L. E., and Schooley, D. A., 1915b, Environmental degradation of the insect growth regulator methoprene. V. Metabolism by houseflies and mosquitoes, Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 5:233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ruzicka, J. H., Thomson, J., and Wheals, B. B., 1967, The gas chromatographic determination of organophosphorus pesticides. Part II. A comparative study of hydrolysis rates, J. Chromatogr. 31:37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schooley, D. A., Creswell, K. M., Staiger, L. E., and Quistad, G. B., 1975, Environmental degradation of the insect growth regulator isopropyl (2E, 4E)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienoate (methoprene). IV. Soil metabolism, J. Agric. Food Chem. 23:369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schwalbe, C. P., Burkholder, W. E., and Boush, G. M., 1974, Mattesia trogodermae infection rates as influenced by mode of transmission, dosage, and host species, J. Stored Prod. Res. 10:161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shapas, T. J., Burkholder, W. E., and Boush, G. M., 1977, Population suppression of Trogoderma glabrum by using pheromone luring for protozoan pathogen dissemination, J. Econ. Entomol. 70:469.Google Scholar
  36. Siddall, J. B., 1976, Insect growth regulators and insect control: A critical appraisal, Environ. Health Perspect. 14:119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sower, L. L., and Whitmer, G. P., 1977, Population growth and mating success of Indian meal moths and almond moths in the presence of synthetic sex pheromone, Environ. Entomol. 6:17.Google Scholar
  38. Stocket, J., 1975, Les phéromones sexuelles chez les insectes de denrées: Possibilités d’applications practiques, Rev. Zool. Agric. Pathol. Weg. 74:158.Google Scholar
  39. von Rumker, R., Lawless, E. W., Meiners, A. F., Lawrence, K. A., Kelso, G. L., and Horay, F., 1974, Production, Distribution, Use and Environmental Impact Potential of Selected Pesticides, EPA 540/1-74-001, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  40. Wheatley, P. E., 1974, Research being undertaken by the Tropical Stored Products Centre in the United Kingdom and overseas, Bull. OEPP 4:495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Winteringham, F. P. W., 1955, The fate of labelled insecticide residues in food products. IV. The possible toxicological and nutritional significance of fumigating wheat with methyl bromide, J. Sci. Food Agric. 6:269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Winteringham, F. P. W., Harrison, A., Bridges, R. G., and Bridges, P. M., 1955, The fate of labelled insecticide residues in food products, II. The nature of methyl bromide residues in fumigated wheat, J. Sci. Food Agric. 6:251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. Plimmer
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Department of AgricultureOrganic Chemical Synthesis Laboratory, Agricultural Research ServiceBeltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations