Advertisement

Microbial Degradation of Pesticides in Tropical Soils

  • N. Sethunathan
  • T. K. Adhya
  • K. Raghu

Abstract

Hot and humid conditions of the tropical and subtropical environments, as exist in most developing countries, favor the buildup of a myriad of insect pests and disease pathogens harmful to man and his agriculturally important crops. Furthermore, in recent years, intensive and extensive cultivation of new high-yielding crop varieties with high nitrogen input in several tropical countries has led to serious outbreaks of certain insect pests that were previously considered minor pests, such as brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) in rice (Kulshreshtha et al., 1974). Consequently, there has been a steady increase in the use of pesticides in most tropical countries in recent years. Pesticide use in most developing countries is still very low, with an input of 330 g/ha in India as compared to 1490 g/ha in a developed country such as Japan (Anonymous, 1979A). However, there are localized areas of heavy pesticide use, such as in cotton, tea, and cocoa and in irrigated rice culture, raising problems of environmental contamination.

Keywords

Microbial Degradation Hydrogen Sulfide Methyl Parathion Tropical Soil Nonsterile Soil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adhya, T. K., Sudhakar Barik, and Sethunathan, N., 1981a, Stability of selected organophosphorus insecticides in anaerobic soils, J. Agric. Food Chem. 29:90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adhya, T. K., Sudhakar Barik, and Sethunathan, N., 1981b, Hydrolysis of selected organophosphorus insecticides by two bacteria isolated from flooded soils, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 50:167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adhya, T. K., Sudhakar Barik, and Sethunathan, N., 1981c, Fate of fenitrothion, methyl parathion and parathion in anoxic sulfur-containing soil systems, Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 16:14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agnihothrudu, V., and Mithyantha, M. S., 1978, Pesticide Residues: A Review of Indian Work, Rallis India Limited, Bangalore, India.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, M., 1965, Biodegradation: Problems of molecular recalcitrance and microbial fallibility, Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 7:35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aly, O. M., and El-Dib, M. A., 1972, Studies of the persistence of some carbamate insecticides in the aquatic environment, Adv. Chem. Ser. 111:210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anonymous, 1966, Annual Report of the International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, p. 198.Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous, 1979a, A status report of R &apm; D work done in India, in: Indo-US Workshop on Biodegradable Pesticides, p. 69, Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  9. Anonymous, 1979b, Pestic. Inf. (India) 5(2):29.Google Scholar
  10. Aquino, G. B., and Pathak, M. D., 1976, Enhanced absorption and persistence of carbofuran and chlordimeform in rice plant on root zone application under flooded conditions, J. Econ. Entomol. 69:686.Google Scholar
  11. Audus, L. J., 1951, The biological detoxification of hormone herbicides in soil, Plant Soil 3:170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balasubramanya, R. H., 1977, Microbial metabolism and behaviour in soil of two carboxanilide fungicides, p. 206, Ph.D. thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.Google Scholar
  13. Balasubramanya, R. H., Patil, R. B., Bhat, M. V., and Nagendrappa, G., 1980, Degradation of carboxin (Vitavax) and oxycarboxin (Plantvax) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from soil, J. Environ. Sci. Health 15B:485.Google Scholar
  14. Beland, F. A., Farwell, S. O., Robocker, A. E., and Geer, R. D., 1976, Electrochemical reduction and anaerobic degradation of lindane, J. Agric. Food Chem. 24:753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bindra, O. S., and Kalra, R. L., 1973, Progress and Problems in Pesticide-Residue Analysis, p. 336, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, and Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  16. Block, A. M., and Newland, L. W., 1975, Molecular orbital calculations for the isomers of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, in: Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement II. Pesticides (F. Coulston, N. Y. Albany, and F. Korte, eds.), p. 569, Georg Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  17. Castro, T. F., and Yoshida, T., 1971, Degradation of organochlorine insecticides in flooded soils in the Philippines, J. Agric. Food Chem. 19:1168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Castro, T. F., and Yoshida, T., 1974, Effect of organic matter on the biodégradation of some organochlorine insecticides in submerged soils, Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. (Tokyo) 20:363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chawla, R. P., and Chopra, S. L., 1967, Persistence of residues of DDT and BHC in normal and alkali soils, J. Res. Punjab Agric. Univ. 4:96.Google Scholar
  20. Cho, D. Y., and Ponnamperuma, F. N., 1971, Influence of soil temperature on the chemical kinetics of flooded soils and the growth of rice, Soil Sci. 112:184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Craig, P. J., and Bartlett, P. D., 1978, The role of hydrogen sulphide in environmental transport of mercury, Nature (London) 275:635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Faust, S. D., and Gomaa, H. M., 1972, Chemical hydrolysis of some organic phosphorus and carbamate pesticides in aquatic environments, Environ. Lett. 3:171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fullmer, O. H., 1977, Report on Carbofuran, FMC Corporation, Agricultural Chemical Division, Richmond, California.Google Scholar
  24. Glass, B. L., 1972, Relation between the degradation of DDT and iron redox system in soils, J. Agric. Food Chem. 20:324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gowda, T. K. S., and Sethunathan, N., 1976, Persistence of endrin in Indian rice soils under flooded conditions, J. Agric. Food Chem. 24:750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gowda, T. K. S., and Sethunathan, N., 1977, Endrin decomposition in soils as influenced by aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Soil Sci. 124:5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gupta, K. G., Sud, R. K., Aggarwal, P. K., and Aggarwal, J. C., 1975, Effect of baygon on some soil biological processes and its degradation by Pseudomonas sp., Plant Soil 42:317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haider, K., Jagnow, G., and Rohr, R., 1976, Anaerober Abbau von 7-Hexachlorocyclohexan durch eine bakterielle Microflora des Bodens und des Kuhpansens, Landwirtsch. Forsch. 32(11): 147.Google Scholar
  29. Heritage, A. D., and MacRae, I. C., 1977, Identification of intermediates formed during the degradation of hexachlorocyclohexanes by Clostridium sphénoides, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:1295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Heritage, A. D., and MacRae, I. C., 1979, Degradation of hexachlorocyclohexanes and structurally related substances by Clostridium sphénoides, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 32:493.Google Scholar
  31. Jagnow, G., Haider, K., and Ellwardt, P. Chr., 1977, Anaerobic dechlorination and degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers by anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, Arch. Microbiol. 115:285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Karanth, N. G. K., and Vasantharajan, V. N., 1973, Persistence and effect of dexon on soil respiration, Soil Biol. Biochem. 5:679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Karanth, N. G. K., Bhat, S. G., Vaidyanathan, C. S., and Vasantharajan, V. N., 1974, Conversion of dexon (p-dimethylaminobenzene diazo sodium sulfonate) to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylene diamine by Pseudomonas fragi Bk 9, Appl. Microbiol. 27:43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Katan, J., Fuhremann, T. W., and Lichtenstein, E. P., 1976, Binding of 14C-parathion in soil: A reassessment of pesticide persistence, Science 193:891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaufman, D. D., 1977, Biodegradation and persistence of several acetamide, acylanilide, azide, carbamate and organophosphate combinations, Soil Biol. Biochem. 9:49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kearney, P. C., and Helling, C. S., 1969, Reactions of pesticides in soils, Residue Rev. 25:25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kearney, P. C., Nash, R. G., and Isensee, A. R., 1969, Persistence of pesticide residues in soils, in: Chemical Fallout: Current Research on Persistent Pesticides (M. W. Miller and G. G. Berg, eds.), p. 531, C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  38. Kulshreshtha, J. P., Anjaneyulu, A., and Padmanabhan, S. Y., 1974, The disastrous brown plant-hopper attack in Kerala, Ind. Farming 24:5.Google Scholar
  39. Kumarasamy, R., and Raghu, K., 1976, Copper dimethyldithiocarbamate, a degradation product of thiram in soil, Chemosphere 5:107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liang, T. T., and Lichtenstein, E. P., 1974, Synergism of insecticides by herbicides: Effect of environmental factors, Science 186:1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. MacRae, I. C., Raghu, K., and Castro, T. F., 1967, Persistence and biodégradation of four common isomers of benzenehexachloride in submerged soils, J. Agric. Food Chem. 15:911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MacRae, I. C., Raghu, K., and Bautista, E. M., 1969, Anaerobic degradation of the insecticide lindane by Clostridium sp., Nature (London) 221:859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Matsumura, F., Khanvilkar, V. G., Patil, K. C., and Boush, G. M., 1971, Metabolism of endrin by certain soil microorganisms, J. Agric. Food Chem. 19:27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ohisa, N., and Yamaguchi, M., 1978a, Gamma-BHC degradation accompanied by the growth of Clostridium rectum isolated from paddy field soil, Agric. Biol. Chem. 42:1819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ohisa, N., and Yamaguchi, M., 1978b, Degradation of gamma-BHC in flooded soils enriched with peptone, Agric. Biol. Chem. 42:1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Parr, J. F., and Smith, S., 1974, Degradation of DDT in an everglades muck as affected by lime, ferrous ion and anaerobiosis, Soil Sci. 118:45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Patil, K. C., Matsumura, F., and Boush, G. M., 1970, Degradation of endrin, aldrin, and DDT by soil microorganisms, Appl. Microbiol. 19:879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pfaender, F. K., and Alexander, M., 1972, Extensive microbial degradation of DDT in vitro and DDT metabolism in natural communities, J. Agric. Food Chem. 20:842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Raghu, K., and MacRae, I. C., 1966, Biodegradation of the gamma-isomer of benzenehexachloride in submerged soils, Science 154:263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Raghu, K., Murthy, N. B. K., and Kumarasamy, R., 1974, Degradation of thiram in soils, in: Proceedings of the Department of Atomic Energy Symposium on Use of Radiations and Radioisotopes in Studies of Plant Productivity, p. 874, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay.Google Scholar
  51. Raghu, K., Murthy, N. B. K., Kumarasamy, R., Sudha-Rao, R., and Sane, P. V., 1975, Fate and persistence of thiram in plants and soils, in: Origin and Fate of Chemical Residues in Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, p. 137, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.Google Scholar
  52. Raghu, K., Kumarasamy, R., Sudha-Rao, R., Murthy, N. B. K., and Sane, P. V., 1976, Metabolism of labelled ziram in groundnut plants and its microbiological degradation, in: Trace Contaminants of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Developing Countries, p. 37, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.Google Scholar
  53. Rajaram, K.P., and Sethunathan, N., 1975, Effect of organic sources on the degradation of parathion in flooded alluvial soil, Soil Sci. 119:296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rajaram, K. P., and Sethunathan, N., 1976, A factor inhibiting parathion hydrolysis in organic matter-amended soil under flooded conditions, Plant Soil 44:683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rajaram, K. P., Rao, Y. R., and Sethunathan, N., 1978, Inhibition of biological hydrolysis of parathion in rice straw-amended flooded soil and its reversal by nitrogen compounds and aerobic conditions, Pestic. Sci. 9:155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rao, Y. R., and Sethunathan, N., 1979, Effect of ferrous sulfate on the degradation of parathion in flooded soil, J. Environ. Sci. Health 14B:335.Google Scholar
  57. Saltzman, S., Yaron, B., and Mingelgrin, U., 1974, The surface-catalyzed hydrolysis of parathion on kaolinites, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 38:231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Seiber, J. N., Catahan, M. P., and Berril, C. R., 1978, Loss of carbofuran from rice paddy water: Chemical and physical factors, J. Environ. Sci. Health 13B:131.Google Scholar
  59. Sethunathan, N., 1972, Diazinon degradation in submerged soil and rice-paddy water, Adv. Chem. Ser. 111:244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sethunathan, N., 1973, Organic matter and parathion degradation in flooded soil, Soil Biol. Biochem. 5:641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sethunathan, N., and MacRae, I. C., 1969, Persistence and biodégradation of diazinon in submerged soils, J. Agric. Food Chem. 17:221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sethunathan, N., and Siddaramappa, R., 1978, Microbial degradation of pesticides in rice soils, in: Soils and Rice (F. N. Ponnamperuma, ed.), p. 479, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  63. Sethunathan, N., and Yoshida, T., 1969, Fate of diazinon in submerged soil: Accumulation of hydrolysis product, J. Agric. Food Chem. 17:1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sethunathan, N., and Yoshida, T., 1973a, Degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by Clostridium sp. isolated from lindane-amended flooded soil, Plant Soil 38:663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sethunathan, N., and Yoshida, T., 1973b, A Flavobacterium sp. that degrades diazinon and parathion, Can. J. Microbiol. 19:873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sethunathan, N., and Yoshida, T., 1973c, Parathion degradation in submerged rice soils in the Philippines, J. Agric. Food Chem. 21:504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sethunathan, N., Bautista, E. M., and Yoshida, T., 1969, Degradation of benzenehexachloride by a soil bacterium, Can. J. Microbiol. 15:1349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sethunathan, N., Caballa, S., and Pathak, M. D., 1971, Absorption and translocation of diazinon by rice plants from submerged soils and paddy water and the persistence of residues in plant tissues, J. Econ. Entomol. 64:571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Sethunathan, N., Siddaramappa, R., Rajaram, K. P., Barik, S., and Wahid, P. A., 1977, Parathion: Residues in soil and water, Residue Rev. 68:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Siddaramappa, R., and Seiber, J. N., 1979, Persistence of carbofuran in flooded rice soils and water, Progr. Water Technol. 11:103.Google Scholar
  71. Siddaramappa, R., and Sethunathan N., 1975, Persistence of gamma-BHC and beta-BHC in Indian rice soils under flooded conditions, Pestic. Sci. 6:395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Siddaramappa, R., and Sethunathan, N., 1976, Volatilization of lindane from water in soil-free and flooded soil sytems, J. Environ. Sci. Health 11B:119.Google Scholar
  73. Siddaramappa, R., and Watanabe, I., 1979, Evidence for vapor loss of C-14-Carbofuran from rice plants, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 23:544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Siddaramappa, R., Rajaram, K. P., and Sethunathan, N., 1973, Degradation of parathion by bacteria isolated from flooded soil, Appl. Microbiol. 26:846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Siddaramappa, R., Tirol, A. C., Seiber, J. N., Heinrichs, E. A., and Watanabe, I., 1978, The degradation of carbofuran in paddy water and flooded soil of untreated and retreated rice fields, J. Environ. Sci. Health 13B:369.Google Scholar
  76. Sud, R. K., Sud, A. K., and Gupta, K. G., 1972, Degradation of sevin (1-napthyl N-methyl carbamate) by Achromobacter sp., Arch. Microbiol. 87:353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sudhakar-Barik, and Sethunathan, N., 1978a, Biological hydrolysis of parathion in natural ecosystems, J. Environ. Qual. 7:346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sudhakar-Barik, and Sethunathan, N., 1978b, Metabolism of nitrophenols in flooded soils, J. Environ. Qual. 7:349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sudhakar-Barik, and Sethunathan, N., 1979, Persistence of parathion increased by benomyl in flooded soil, Progr. Water Technol. 11:113.Google Scholar
  80. Sudhakar-Barik, Siddaramappa, R., and Sethunathan, N., 1976, Metabolism of nitrophenols by bacteria isolated from parathion-amended flooded soil, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: J. Microbiol. Serol. 42:461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sudhakar-Barik, Wahid, P. A., Ramakrishna, C., and Sethunathan, N., 1979, A change in the degradation pathway of parathion after repeated applications to flooded soil, J. Agric. Food Chem. 27:1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Talekar, N. S., Sun, L.-T., Lee, E.-M., and Chen, J.-S., 1977, Persistence of some insecticides in subtropical soil, J. Agric. Food Chem. 25:349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tomizawa, C., 1977, Past and present status of residues of pesticides manufactured in Japan, Jpn. Pestic. Inf. 30:5.Google Scholar
  84. Tsukano, Y., and Kobayashi, A., 1972, Formation of 7-BTC in flooded rice field soils treated with 7-BHC, Agric. Biol. Chem. 36:166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Venkateswarlu, K., 1979, Microbial degradation of carbamate insecticides in rice soils, p. 127, Ph.D. thesis, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India.Google Scholar
  86. Venkateswarlu, K., and Sethunathan, N., 1978, Degradation of carbofuran in rice soils as influenced by repeated application and exposure to aerobic conditions following anaerobiosis, J. Agric. Food Chem. 26:1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Venkateswarlu, K., and Sethunathan, N., 1979, Metabolism of carbofuran in rice straw-amended and unamended rice soils, J. Environ. Qual. 8:365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Venkateswarlu, K., Gowda, T. K. S., and Sethunathan, N., 1977, Persistence and biodégradation of carbofuran in flooded soils, J. Agric. Food Chem. 25:553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Venkateswarlu, K., Chendrayan, K., and Sethunathan, N., 1980, Persistence and biodégradation of carbaryl in soils, J. Environ. Sci. Health 15B:421.Google Scholar
  90. Wahid, P. A., 1978, Behaviour of pesticides in soils, p. 139, Ph.D. thesis, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India.Google Scholar
  91. Wahid, P. A., and Sethunathan, N., 1978, Sorption-desorption of parathion in soils, J. Agric. Food Chem. 26:101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wahid, P. A., and Sethunathan, N., 1979a, Sorption-desorption of α, β and γ-isomers of hexa-chlorocyclohexane in soils, J. Agric. Food Ckem. 27:1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wahid, P. A., and Sethunathan, N., 1979b, Involvement of hydrogen sulphide in the degradation of parathion in flooded acid sulphate soil, Nature (London) 282:401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wahid, P. A., and Sethunathan, N., 1980, Sorption-desorption of lindane by anaerobic soils, J. Agric. Food Chem. 28:623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wahid, P. A., Ramakrishna, C., and Sethunathan, N., 1980, Instantaneous degradation of parathion in anaerobic soils, J. Environ. Qual. 9:127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Williams, P. P., 1977, Metabolism of synthetic organic pesticides by anaerobic microorganisms, Residue Rev. 66:63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Yaron, B., 1975, Chemical conversion of parathion on soil surfaces, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39:639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yoshida, T., and Castro, T. F., 1970, Degradation of gamma-BHC in rice soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 34:440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yoshida, T., and Castro, T. F., 1975, Degradation of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and picloram in two Philippine soils, Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. (Tokyo) 21:397.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Sethunathan
    • 1
  • T. K. Adhya
    • 1
  • K. Raghu
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Soil MicrobiologyCentral Rice Research InstituteCuttackIndia
  2. 2.Biology and Agriculture DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreBombayIndia

Personalised recommendations