Oligosaccharide Conformation and the Control of Oligosaccharide Assembly
It is now generally accepted that glycoproteins and glycolipids, members of a large group of macromolecules called complex carbohydrates or glycoconjugates, are important constituents of the mammalian cell membrane. It has also been suggested that the oligosaccharide moieties of cell surface complex carbohydrates serve as probes with which the cell interacts with its environment and through which the environment delivers signals to the interior of the cell (Hughes, 1976; Sharon, 1979; Atkinson and Hakimi, 1980). Cell surface sugars have, in fact, been shown to be present on receptors for viruses, hormones, toxins, interferon, bacteria, and mitogenic lectins; however, in only a limited number of cases has the oligosaccharide moiety itself been proven to be the basis for the recognition signal. A series of phenomena in which sugars obviously must determine recognition are the various biological effects that lectins have on certain cells (Sharon, 1979; Lis and Sharon, 1977), e.g., mitogenic stimulation, agglutination, toxicity, etc. An analogous area of recent research activity has been in the field of “mammalian lectins,” cell surface and intracellular membrane receptors that recognize specific sugar moieties; for example, mammalian hepatocytes have been shown to carry on their surface and on intracellular membranes a receptor for molecules with terminal galactose residues, and human fibroblast lysosomal membranes are believed to carry a receptor that recognizes and binds mannose-6phosphate-containing macromolecules thereby determining the routing of lysosomal hydro-lases to the lysosome (Neufeld and Ashwell, 1980).
KeywordsElution Pattern Bovine Colostrum GlcNAc Residue Mammalian Cell Membrane Analogous Area
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