Optical Probes of the Potential Difference across Membranes

  • Alan S. Waggoner


The membrane potential is an important property of cells. For example, it is well known that the nerve impulse is a transient depolarization of the axon membrane potential. As well, the transmembrane electrical potential difference is critical to the proper function of all nonexcitable cells and organelles. The importance becomes clear when one counts the number of ion, sugar, amino acid, neurotransmitter, and metabolite transport systems that are driven directly or indirectly by the membrane potential.


Membrane Potential Optical Probe Fluorescence Change Plasma Membrane Potential Squid Axon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bashford, C. L., and Smith, J. C. (1979). Methods Enzymol. 55, part F, 569–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayer, M. E., and Bayer, M. H. (1981). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78, 5618–5622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beeler, T. J., Farmen, R. H., and Martonosi, A. N. (1981). J. Membr. Biol., 62, 113–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cafiso, D. S., and Hubbell, W. L. (1978). Biochemistry 17, 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen, L. B., and Salzberg, B. M. (1978). Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 83, 35–88.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, L. B., Landown, D., Shrivastav, B. B., and Ritchie, J. M. (1970). Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole, Mass.) 139, 418–419.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, R. L., Muirhead, K. A., Gill, J. E., Waggoner, A. S., and Horan, P. K. (1981). Nature (London), 290, 593–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cone, D. C. (1975). Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 238, 420–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Freedman, J. C., and Hoffman, J. F. (1979). J. Gen. Physiol. 74, 187–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freedman, J. C., and Laris, P. C. (1981). Intl. Rev. Cytol. Suppl. 12, 177–246.Google Scholar
  11. Grinvald, A., and Farber, I. C. (1981). Science, 212, 1164–1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grinvald, A., and Segal, M. (1981). Soc. Neurosci, 7, 889.Google Scholar
  13. Grinvald, A., Cohen, L. B., Lesher, S., and Boyle, M. B. (1981a). J. Neurophysiol., 45, 829–840.Google Scholar
  14. Grinvald, A., Ross, W. N., and Farber, I. C. (198lb). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78, 3245–3249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gupta, R. K., Salzberg, B. M., Grinvald, A., Cohen, L. B., Kamino, K., Lesher, S., Boyle, M. B., Waggoner, A. S., and Wang, C. H. (1981). J. Membr. Biol. 58, 123–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hacking, C., and Eddy, A. A. (1981). Biochem. J., 194, 415–426.Google Scholar
  17. Hoffman, J. F., and Laris, P. C. (1974). J. Physiol. (London) 239, 519–552.Google Scholar
  18. Johnson, L. V., Walsh, M. L., Bockus, B. J.; and Chen, L. B. (1981). J. Cell Biol. 88, 526–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Junge, W. (1977). Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28, 503–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krasne, S. (1980a). Biophys. J. 30, 415–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Krasne, S. (1980b). Biophys. J. 30, 441–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Labedan, B., and Letellier, L. (1981). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 215–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Laszlo, D. J., and Taylor, B. L. (1981). J. Bacteriol. 145, 990–1001.Google Scholar
  24. Loew, L. M., and Simpson, L. (1981). Biophys. J., 34, 353–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Macey, R. I., Adorante, J. S., and Orme, F. W. (1978). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 512, 284–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morad, M. and Salama, G. (1979). J. Physiol. (London) 292, 267–295.Google Scholar
  27. Rottenberg, H. (1979). Methods, Enzymol. 55, part F, 547–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Salzberg, B. M., Senseman, D. M., and Salama, G. (1981). Biophys. J. 33, 90a.Google Scholar
  29. Schummer, U., Schieffer, H.-G., and Gerhardt, U. (1980). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 600, 998–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sims, P. J. Waggoner, A. S., Wang, C., and Hoffman, J. F. (1974). Biochemistry 13, 3315–3329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tasaki, I., Watanabe, A., Sandlin, R., and Camay, L. (1968). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61, 883–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tsien, R. Y., and Hladky, S. B. (1978). J. Membr. Biol. 38, 73–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Waggoner, A. S. (1979a). Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 8, 47–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Waggoner, A. S. (1979b). Methods Enzymol. 55, part F, 689–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wright, S. H., Krasne, S., Kippen, I., and Wright, E. M. (1981). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 640, 767–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zaritsky, A., Kihara, M., and Macnab, R. M. (1981). J. Membr. Biol., 63, 215–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan S. Waggoner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryAmherst CollegeAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations