Maternal Referencing in Normal and Down’s Syndrome Infants

A Longitudinal Analysis
  • James F. Sorce
  • Robert N. Emde
  • Mark Frank
Part of the Topics in Developmental Psychobiology book series (TDP)


Researchers interested in the developing mother—infant relationship have observed that beginning in early infancy there is already a complex nonverbal communication system (Bowlby, 1969; Brazelton, Koslowski, & Main, 1974; Stern, 1977). We agree with Darwin (1872) that a critical aspect of this “first language of infancy” is that emotional signals are reciprocally exchanged between mother and infant.


Emotional Expression Emotional Behavior Normal Infant Emotional Signal Previous Longitudinal Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnold, M.: Emotion and personality (Vol. 1 & 2). New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  2. Bowlby, J.: Attachment. New York: Basic Books, 1969.Google Scholar
  3. Brazelton, T. B., Koslowski, B., & Main, M.: The origins of reciprocity: The early mother—infant interaction. In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds.), The effect of the infant on its caregiver. New York: Wiley, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. Campos, J. J., & Stenberg, C. R.: Perception, appraisal and emotion: The onset of social referencing. In M. Lamb & L. Sherrod (Eds.), Infant social cognition. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. Cicchetti, D., & Sroufe, L. A.: The relationship between affective and cognitive development in Down’s syndrome infants. Child Development, 1976, 47, 920–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cicchetti, D., & Sroufe, L. A.: An organizational view of affect: Illustration from the study of Down’s syndrome infants. In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds.), The developmental of affect. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. Darwin, C.: Expression of emotion in man and animals. London: John Murray, 1904. (Originally published, 1872.)Google Scholar
  8. Emde, R. N., Gaensbauer, T. J., & Harmon, R. J.: Emotional expression in infancy; A biobehavioral study. Psychological Issues, A Monograph Series, Inc. (Vol. 10), No. 37. New York: International Universities Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  9. Emde, R. N., Katz, E. L., & Thorpe, J. K.: Emotional expression in infancy: II. Early deviations in Down’s syndrome. In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds.), The development of affect. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  10. Goldberg, S.: Some biological aspects of early parent—infant interaction. In S. G. Moore & C. R. Cooper (Eds.). The young child: Reviews of research. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1982.Google Scholar
  11. Goren, C. G., Sarty, M., & Wu, P.: Visual following and pattern discrimination of face-like stimuli by newborn infants. Pediatrics, 1975, 56, 544–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Haith, M. M., Bergman, T., & Moore, M. J.: Eye contact and face scanning in early infancy. Science, 1977, 198, 853–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haith, M. M.: Rules that newborns look by. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. Hetzer, H., & Buhler, C.: Das erste Verstandnis fur Ausdruck in ersten Lebensjahr. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 1928, 107, 50–61.Google Scholar
  15. Kreutzer, M. A., & Charlesworth, W. R.: Infants’ reactions to different expressions of emotions. Presentation at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development at Philadelphia, March 1973.Google Scholar
  16. LaBarbera, J. D., hard, C. E., Vietze, P., & Parisi, S. A.: Four-and six-month-old infants’ visual responses to joy, anger, and neutral expressions. Child Development, 1976, 47, 535–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mahler, M. S., & Fuhrer, M.: On human symbiosis and the vicissitudes of individuation, Vol. 1, Infantile psychosis. New York: Basic Books, 1968.Google Scholar
  18. Mahler, M. S., Pine, F., & Bergman, A.: The psychological birth of the human infant: Symbiosis and individuation. New York: Basic Books, 1975.Google Scholar
  19. Salapatek, P.: Pattern perception in early infancy. In L. B. Cohen & P. Salapatek (Eds.), Infant perception: From sensation to cognition (Vol. 1) New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  20. Sorce, J. F., & Emde, R. N.: The meaning of infant emotional expressions: Regularities in caregiving responses in normal and Down’s syndrome infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, in press, 1982.Google Scholar
  21. Stechler, G., & Carpenter, G.: Theoretical considerations. Exceptional Infant Normal Infant, 1967, 1, 165–189.Google Scholar
  22. Stern, D.: The first relationship. Infant and mother. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  23. Young-Browne, G., Rosenfled, H. M., & Horowitz, F. D.: Infant discrimination of facial expression. Child Development, 1976, 48, 555–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • James F. Sorce
    • 1
  • Robert N. Emde
    • 1
  • Mark Frank
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations