Human Cytomegalovirus Infections in Immunosuppressed Patients
Only certain virus infections are increased following organ transplantation. These are infections by the herpesvirus group, papovavirus (warts and BK virus), hepatitis B virus, and perhaps adenoviruses (Ho, 1977). Symptomatic infections are almost all caused by herpesviruses and warts (Spencer and Andersen, 1979). Infection with many other common viruses such as rhinoviruses, myxovirus, paramyxoviruses, rubella, enteroviruses, and arboviruses do not appear to be increased, although there are reports of infection with one or another. A virus may be transmitted from the outside and infect de novo (primary infection), or it may already be in the patient and be activated (reactivation infection). Primary infection with a particular virus cannot occur if there is no opportunity for exposure to the agent or if preexisting natural or acquired immunity of the patient obviates the risk of exposure. Such immunity may remain operative despite immunosuppressive measures after transplantation, particularly if it is humoral immunity. No reactivation infection will occur if the virus does not remain latent in the host or if reactivation is prevented by immunity.
KeywordsRenal Transplant Patient Cytomegalovirus Infection Immunosuppressed Patient Seronegative Donor Seronegative Recipient
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