Social Skills and Physical Disability

  • Michael E. Dunn
  • Steven H. Herman


Medical and physical rehabilitation of persons with major medical disorders such as spinal cord injury has progressed to the point where normal life spans are expected and physical mobility problems no longer interfere with leading a full life (Mesard, Carmody, Mannarino, & Ruge, 1978). Such advances in medical andhysical rehabilitation may be insufficient however, unless accompanied by efforts to facilitate patients’ psychosocial rehabilitation.One study (cited by Morgan, 1972, p. 37) has shown that in a comparison of two very similar spinal cord injury rehabilitation programs, the one that offered an augmented psychosocial program in addition to medical treatment resulted in patients who maintained their hospital-learned physical gains in the first 90 days after discharge. Of the group that received medical treatment only, 50% deteriorated in the same time period.


Spinal Cord Injury Social Skill Physical Disability Response Probability Social Skill Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albrecht, G., Harasymiw, S. J., & Horne, M. Social perceptions of disability. Paper pre-sented at the American Sociological Association meeting, Chicago, Illinois, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, J., & Goodrich, R. Videotape immediate playback: A tool in rehabilitation of persons with amputation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1978, 59, 141–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American Foundation for the Blind, What do you do when you see a blind person? New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. Psychotherapy based on modeling principles. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: Wiley, 1971.Google Scholar
  5. Bellack, A. S., Hersen, M., & Turner, S. M. Role play tests for assessing social skills: Are they valid ? Behavior Therapy 1978, 9, 448–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brookfield, K. K. Attitudes of the disabled and non-disabled toward self and toward disabled and normal persons. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1969.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, M., Caplan, J., Swirsky, J. Rehabilitation indicators: An overview. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, Toronto, August 1978.Google Scholar
  8. Bull, R. Prejudice “scar wars.” Psychology Today, February 1980, p. 106.Google Scholar
  9. Chaney, E., O’Leary, M., & Marlatt, G. Skill training with alcoholics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1978, 46, 1092–1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheek, D. K. Assertive black.. puzzled white. San Luis Obispo, Calif.: Impact Publishers, 1976.Google Scholar
  11. Cogswell, B. D. Self socialization: Readjustment of paraplegics in the community. Journal of Rehabilitation, 1968, 34, 11–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Comer, R. J., & Piliavin, J. A. The effects of physical deviance upon face to face interaction:The other side. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972, 23, 33–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cozby, P. C. Self disclosure: A literature review. Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 79, 73–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davis, F. Deviance disavowal: The management of strained interaction by the visibly hand-icapped. Social Problems, 1961, 9, 120–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Montmollin, J., Herman, S. H., & Rice, W. The social skills of abstinence. Paper pre-sented at Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, March 15–18, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. Diller, L., Fordyce, W., Jacobs, D., & Brown, M. Excerpts from skill indicators. Rehabilita-tion Indicators Project, New York University Medical Center, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  17. Diller, L., Fordyce, W., Jacobs, D., & Brown, M. Activity pattern indicators. Rehabilitation Indicators Projects, New York University Medical Center, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  18. Dixon, J. K. Coping with prejudice: Attitudes of handicapped persons towards the handicap-ped. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 1977, 30, 307–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunn, M. Psychological intervention in a SCI center: An introduction. Rehabilitation Psychology, 1975, 22, 165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunn, M. Social discomfort in the patient with SCI. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1977, 58, 257–260.Google Scholar
  21. Dunn, M., Van Horn, E., & Herman, S. H. Social skills and the SCI patient 1976. (#NAC004–179. Videotape available from the National Audio Visual Center, Washington, D.C..Google Scholar
  22. Dunn, M., Van Horn, E., & Herman, S. H. Social skills and SCI: A comparison of three training procedures. Behavior Therapy, 1981, 12, 153–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eisler, R. M., Hersen, M., & Miller, P. M. Effects of modeling on components of assertive behavior. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1973, 4, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eisler, R., Miller, P., & Hersen, M. Components of assertive behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1973, 29, 295–299.Google Scholar
  25. Eisler, R. M., Hersen, M., Miller, P. M., & Blanchard, F. B. Situational determinants of assertive behaviors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975, 43, 330–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fehr, M. J., Dybsky, A., Wacker, D., & Kerr, J. Eye contact in the social skills of obtaining help. Paper presented as part of the symposium The Social Skills of Physical Disability, American Psychological Association, San Francisco, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. Fensterheim, H., & Baer, J. Don’t say yes when you want to say no. New York: David McKay, 1975.Google Scholar
  28. Flora, J. A., & Dybsky, A. The wheelchair: A social stimulus for unsolicited help Rehabilitation Psychology, 1976, 23, 109–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fox, B. Premorbid psychological factors as related to cancer incidence. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1978, 1, 45–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fredericksen, L. W., Jenkins, J. O., Foy, D. W., & Eisler, R. M. Social skills training to modify abusive verbal outbursts in adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1976, 9, 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Galassi, J. P., Galassi, M. D., & Litz, M. D. Assertive training in groups using video feedback. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1974, 21, 390–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gallenberger, C. Self-monitoring versus group therapy in assertiveness training. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Memphis State University, 1979.Google Scholar
  33. Gambrill, E. D., & Richey, C. A. An assertion inventory for use in assessment and research. Behavior Therapy, 1975, 6, 350–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ginsburg, M. L. Assertion with the wheelchair-bound: Measurement and training. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 1978.Google Scholar
  35. Hastorf, A. H., Wildfogel, J., & Cassman, T. Acknowledgment of handicap as a tactic in social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, 37 (10), 1790–1797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hedquist, F. J., & Weinhold, B. K. Behavioral group counseling with socially anxious and unassertive college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1970, 17, 237–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heimberg, R. G., Montgomery, D., Madsen, C., & Heimberg, J. S. Assertion training: A review of the literature. Behavior Therapy, 1977, 8, 953–971.Google Scholar
  38. Herman, S. H., Dunn, M., Van Horn, E., & de Montmollin, J. Behavioral validity of general social skills assessment procedures with spinal cord injured individuals. Paper presented at the eleventh annual Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy meeting, Atlanta, 1977.Google Scholar
  39. Herman, S. H., Van Horn, E., & Dunn, M. Behavioral assessment of general and disability specific social skills. Paper presented at the annual American Psychological Association meeting, in the symposium The Social Skills of Physical Disability, San Francisco, 1977.Google Scholar
  40. Hersen, M., & Bellack, A. S. Social skills training for chronic psychiatric patients: Rationale, research findings and future directions. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1976, 17, 559–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hersen, M., Eisler, R., & Miller, P. An experimental analysis of generalization in assertion training. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1974, 12, 295–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hirsch, S. M. Assertiveness training with alcoholics. In R. E. Alberti (Ed.) Assertiveness:Innovation, applications, issues. San Luis Obispo, Calif., Impact Publishers, 1977.Google Scholar
  43. Hyman, M. D. Social isolation and performance in rehabilitation. Journal of Chronic Dis-eases, 1972, 25, 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jakubowski-Spector, P. Facilitating the growth of women through assertive training. The Counseling Psychologist, 1973, 4, 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jenkins, D., Zyzanski, S., Ryan, T., Flesseas, A., & Tannenbaum, S. Social insecurity and coronary-prone type A responses as identifiers of severe atherosclerosis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45, 1060–1067.Google Scholar
  46. Kahn, E. Social functioning of the patient with SCI. Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association, 1969, 49, 757–762.Google Scholar
  47. Kelley, H. H., Hastorf, A. H., Jones, E. E., Thibaut, J. W., & Usdane, W. M. Some implications of social psychological theory for research on the handicapped, In L. H. Lofquist (Ed.), Psychological research and rehabilitation. American Psychological Association, Miami: 1960.Google Scholar
  48. Kleck, R. Emotional arousal in interactions with stimatized persons. Psychological Reports, 1966, 21, 12–26.Google Scholar
  49. Kleck, R. Physical stigma and nonverbal cues emitted in face-to-face interactions. Human Relations1968 2119–28.Google Scholar
  50. Kleck, R., Ono, H., & Hastorf, A. The effects of physical deviance upon face-to-face interactions. Human Relations1966 19425–436.Google Scholar
  51. Ladieu-Leviton, G., Adler, D. L., & Dembo, T. Studies in adjustment to visible injury: Social acceptance of the injured. Journal of Social Issues1948 455–61.Google Scholar
  52. Lange, A. J., & Jakubowski, P. Responsible assertive behavior. Champaign, Ill.: Research Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  53. MacDonald, M. L., Lindquist, C. U., Kramer, J. A., McGrath, R. A., & Rhyne, L. D. Social skills training: Behavioral rehearsal in groups and dating skills. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1975, 22, 224–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McFall, R. M., & Marston, A. R. An experimental investigation of behavior rehearsal in assertive training. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1970, 76, 295–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McFall, R. M., & Twentyman, C. T. Four experiments on the relative contribution of rehearsal, modeling, and coaching to assertion training. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1973, 81, 199–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mesard, L., Carmody, A., Mannarino, E., & Ruge, D. Survival after spinal cord trauma: A lifetable analysis. Archives of Neurology, 1978, 35, 78–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mishel, M. H. Assertion training with handicapped persons. journal of Counseling Psychology1978 25238–241.Google Scholar
  58. Morgan, E. D. (Ed.). A source book: Rehabilitating the person with spinal cord injury. V.A. Superintendent of Documents, U.A. Government Printing Office, Stock No. 510000063, 1972.Google Scholar
  59. Muzekari, L. H., & Kamis, E. The effects of videotape feedback and modeling on the behavior of chronic schizophrenics. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1973, 29, 313–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nemiah, J., & Sifneos, P. Affect and fantasy in patients with psychosomatic disorders. In O. Hill (Ed.), Modern trends in psychosomatic disorders. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970.Google Scholar
  61. Rathus, S. A. Investigation of assertive behavior through videotape mediated assertive models and directed practice. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1973, 11, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. (a).
    Rathus, S. A. A thirty item schedule for assessing assertive behavior. Behavior Therapy, 1973, 4, 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. b)Resnikoff, A., Kagan, N., & Schauble, P. G. Acceleration of psychotherapy through stimu-lated videotape recall. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1970, 24, 102–111.Google Scholar
  64. Rich, A. R., & Schroeder, H. E. Research issues in assertiveness training. Psychological Bulletin, 1976, 83, 1081–1096.Google Scholar
  65. Richardson, S. A. Some social psychological consequences of handicapping. Pediatrics1963 32291–297.Google Scholar
  66. Robinson, M., & Jacobs, A. Focussed videotape feedback and behavior change in group psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1970, 7, 169–172.Google Scholar
  67. Romano, M. D. Social skills rehabilitation with the newly-handicapped. Archives of Physi-cal Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1975, 56, 559. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  68. Rusalem, H. The homebound. In J. F. Garrett & E. S. Levine (Eds.) Rehabilitation practices with the disabled. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  69. Safilios-Rothschild, C. The sociology and social psychology of disability and rehabilitation. New York: Random House, 1970.Google Scholar
  70. Salter, A. Conditional reflex therapy. New York: Dial Press, 1949.Google Scholar
  71. Schwartz, G. E., & Shapiro, D. Biofeedback and essential hypertension: Current findings and theoretical concerns. Seminars in Psychiatry, 1973, 5, 493–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith, M. J. When I say no I feel guilty. New York: Dial Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  73. Trieschmann, R. B. Spinal cord injuries: Psychological social and vocational adjustment. New York: Pergamon Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  74. Van Hasselt, V., Hersen, M., & Millions, J. Social skills training for alcoholics and drug addicts: A review. Addictive Behaviors, 1979, 3, 221–233.Google Scholar
  75. Weinberg, N. Social stereotyping of the physically handicapped. Rehabilitation Psychology1976, 23(4), 115–124.Google Scholar
  76. Willems, E. Longitudinal analysis of patient behavior. Annual report of research activity, Texas Institute for Rehabilitation and Research, Houston, June 1976.Google Scholar
  77. Wolpe, J. Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  78. Wolpe, J., & Lazarus, A. Behavior therapy techniques: A guide to the treatment of neuroses. New York: Pergamon Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  79. Wooley, S. C., & Blackwell, B. A behavioral probe into social contingencies on a psychosomatic ward. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 1975, 8, 337–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wooley, S. C., Blackwell, B., Glaudin, V., & Lipkin, J. A new behavioral approach to psychosomatic medicine. Paper presented to the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine,Williamsburg, Va., November 1973.Google Scholar
  81. Yuker, H. E., Block, J. R., & Young, J. H. The measurement of attidutes towards disabled persons. Albertson, N.Y.: Human Resources Center, 1966.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael E. Dunn
    • 1
  • Steven H. Herman
    • 2
  1. 1.Psychology ServiceVeterans Administration Medical CenterPalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Psychology ServiceVeterans Administration Medical Center, and Behavioral Medicine InstituteMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations