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Movement Disorders

  • Samuel M. Turner
  • Randall L. Morrison

Abstract

Movement disorders refer to a class of behaviors involving the neuromuscular system and consisting of involuntary muscular movements. Such movements can involve specific muscular units, as is the case with blepharospasm (involuntary eye blinks), groups of muscles (e.g., spasmodic torticollis), or multiple muscular units and groups (e.g., Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome). The etiology of such conditions has long been the center of much controversy. This controversy has been primarily concerned with neurological versus psychological causation. Actually, the term movement disorder is relatively new with respect to widespread usage and incorporates disorders that do in fact have a physical basis (e.g., multiple sclerosis) as well as disorders caused by the use of drugs in the treatment of psychotic disturbances (e.g., tardive dyskinesia). With the emergence of biological psychiatry in the past few years (Guze, 1977) and the renewed interest in the relationship of brain chemistry to mental function, there has been increasing research and theoretical speculation on neurological involvement in what heretofore had been primarily considered psychogenic conditions. It is not our purpose here to review biological theories of movement disorders or to argue for a specific interpretation of etiology. Such theorizing at this point would appear to be premature inasmuch as some disorders seem to have biological causes in some instances and psychological causes in others. Moreover, it seems feasible to us that such disorders are the result of both biological and psychological factors combined. As stated previously, there are some strictly medical conditions (e.g., Parkinson’s disease) that also have significant psychological ramifications.

Keywords

Behavior Therapy Movement Disorder Spasmodic Torticollis Experimental Psychiatry Head Jerk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel M. Turner
    • 1
  • Randall L. Morrison
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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