Advertisement

Effect of Cannabinoids and Narcotics on Gonadal Functions

  • Alexander Jakubovic
  • Edith G. McGeer
  • Patrick L. McGeer

Abstract

Numerous studies have been reported on the pharmacological and biological activities of cannabinoids and narcotic derivatives. Some of these compounds have been shown to have complex biological effects on various systems, including the reproductive system. It is the purpose of this chapter to present a general overview of the reported effects of cannabinoids and narcotic analgesics on gonadal function. In order to do this we must consider some central as well as peripheral effects of these materials, since a normally functioning hypothalamic-pituitary gland system is essential for optimal gonadal function (Figure 7.1). Some pharmacological agents may temporarily or permanently affect male sexual function by virtue of a direct interaction on steroidogenic and/or spermatogenic tissue and/or by an indirect central influence on gonadal function due to interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Moreover, atrophy of reproductive-organ tissue may occur if there is either chronic interference with local cellular metabolic processes or chronic deficiency in the supply of trophic, centrally produced hormones. Since the exact mechanisms of interactions between the CNS and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are not yet known, it is frequently impossible to define the site or sites of action of drugs which affect gonadal function, but it is necessary to remember that central as well as peripheral sites may be involved.

Keywords

Leydig Cell Cannabis User Testosterone Production Narcotic Analgesic Gonadal Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asch, R.H., Smith, C.G., Siler-Kohdr, T.M. and Pauerstein,C.J. (1979). Fertil. Steril., 32, 576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Blank, M.S., Panerai, A.E. and Friesen, H.G. (1979). Science 203, 1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brambilla, F., Resele, L., DeMaio, D. and Nobile, P. (1979). Am. J. Psychiatry 136, 314 Burstein, S., Hunter, S.A. and Scott Shoupe, T. (1979a). Mol. Pharmacol., 15, 633Google Scholar
  4. Burstein, S., Hunter, S.A. and Scott Shoupe, T. (1979b). Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol.Pharmacol., 24, 413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chakravarty, I., Shah, P.G., Sheth, A.R. and Glosh, J.J. (1979). J. Reprod. Fert., 57, 113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cicero, T.J., Bell, R.D., Wiest, W.G., Allison, J.H., Polakoski, K. and Robins, E. (1975). N. Engl. J. Med., 292, 882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cicero, T.J., Meyer, E.R., Bell, R.D. and Koch, G.A. (1976). Endocrinology 98, 367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cicero, T.J., Bell, R.D., Meyer, E.R. and Schweitzer, J. (1977). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 200, 76Google Scholar
  9. Cicero, T.J., Schainker, B.A. and Meyer E.R. (1979). Endocrinology 104, 1286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, S. (1976). Ann. NYAcad. Sci., 282, 211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooke, B.A., Janszen, F.H.A., van Driel, M.J.A. and van der Molen, H.J. (1979). Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 14, 181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Corcoran, M.E., Amit, Z., Malsbury, C.W. and Daykin, S. (1974). Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol., 7, 779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalterio, S., Bartke, A., Roberson, C., Watson, D. and Burstein, S. (1978). Pharmacol. Biochem. Behay., 8, 673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dixit, V.P., Sharma, V.N. and Lohiya, N.K. (1974). Eur. J. Pharmacol., 26, 111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fujimoto, G.T., Kostellow, A.B., Rosenbaum, R., Morrill, G.A. and Bloch, E. (1979). InGoogle Scholar
  16. Marihuana: Biological Effects. Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses. Reproduction Google Scholar
  17. and Brain,Vol. 22/23, ed. G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton (Pergamon Press, Oxford-NewGoogle Scholar
  18. York) p.441Google Scholar
  19. Gerber, N. and Lynn, R.K. (1976). Life Sci., 19, 787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harclerode, J., Nyquist, S.E., Nazar, B. and Lowe, D. (1979). In Marihuana: Biological Google Scholar
  21. Effects. Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain,Vol. 22/23, ed. G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton (Pergamon Press, Oxford-New York) p. 395Google Scholar
  22. Harmon, J. and Aliapoulios, M.A. (1972). N. Engl. J. Med., 287, 936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hembree, W.C. III, Zeidenberg, P. and Nahas, G. (1976). In Marihuana: Chemistry, Bio-chemistry and Cellular Effects, ed. G.G. Nahas ( Springer-Verlag, New York ) p. 521Google Scholar
  24. Hembree, W.C., III, Nahas, G.G., Zeidenberg, P. and Huang, H.F.S. (1979). In Marihuana:Biological Effects. Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain, Vol. 22/23 ed. G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton (Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York ) p. 429Google Scholar
  25. Ieiri, T., Chen, H.T. and Meites, J. (1979). Neuroendocrinology 29, 288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Issidorides, M.R. (1979). In Marihuana: Biological Effects. Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain, Vol. 22/23 ed. G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton (Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York ) p. 377Google Scholar
  27. Jakubovic, A. and McGeer, P.L. (1976). In Marihuana: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Cellular Effects, ed. G.G. Nahas ( Springer-Verlag, New York ) p. 223Google Scholar
  28. Jakubovic, A. and McGeer, P.L. (1977). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 41, 473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jakubovic, A. and McGeer, E.G. (1979). Mol. Pharmacol., 16, 970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jakubovic, A., McGeer, E.G. and McGeer, P.L. (1978). Biochem. Pharmacol., 24, 123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jakubovic, A., McGeer, E.G. and McGeer, P.L. (1979a). Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 15, 41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jakubovic, A., McGeer, E.G. and McGeer, P.L. (1979b). In Marihuana: Biological Effects Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain, Vol. 22/23, ed. G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton (Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York ) p. 251Google Scholar
  33. Kaymakcalan, S. (1979). In Marihuana: Biological Effects. Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain, Vol. 22/23 ed. G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton (Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York ) p. 591Google Scholar
  34. Kley, H.K., Oellerich, M., Wiegelmann, W., Herrmann, J., Rudorff, K.H., Nieschlag, E. and Kriiskemper, H.L. (1977). Norm. Metab. Res., 9, 484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kolodny, R.C., Masters, W.H., Kolodner, R.M. and Toro, G. (1974). N Engl. J. Med., 290, 872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kolodny, R.C., Lessin, P., Toro, G., Masters, W.H. and Cohen, S. (1976). In The Phamacology of Marihuana, ed. M.C. Braude and S. Szara ( Raven Press, New York ) p. 217Google Scholar
  37. Kreek, M.J. (1978). Ann. NYAcad. Sci., 311, 110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lemberger, L., Crabtree, R., Rowe, H. and Clemens, J. (1975). Life Sci., 16, 1339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ling, G.M. Thomas, J.A., Usher, D.R. and Singhal, R.L. (1973). Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 7, 1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ling, W., Charuvastra, V.C., Kaim, S.C. and Klett, C.J. (1976). Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 33, 709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Martin, W.R., Jasinski, D.R., Haertzen, C.A., Kay, D.C., Jones, B.E., Mansky, P.A. and Carpenter, R.W. (1973). Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 28, 286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maskarinec, M.P., Shipley, G., Novotny, M., Brown, D.J. and Forney, R.B. (1978). Separatum Experentia 34, 88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Meites, J., Bruni, J.F., Van Vugt, D.A. and Smith, A.F. (1979). Life Sci., 24, 1325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mendelson, C., Dufau, M.L. and Catt, K.J. (1975a). Biochem. Biophys. Acta 411, 222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mendelson, J.H. and Mello, N.K. (1975). Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 17, 529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Mendelson, J.H., Mendelson, J.E. and Patch, V.D. (1975b). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 192, 211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Mendelson, J.H., Inturrisi, C.E., Renault, P. and Senay, E.C. (1976). Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 19, 371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Mendelson, J.H., Ellingboe, J., Kuehnle, J. and Mello, N.K. (1978). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 207, 611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Okey, A.B. and Bondy, G.P. (1978). Science 200, 312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Purohit, V., Singh, H.H. and Ahluwalia, B.S. (1979). Biol. Reprod., 20, 1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Quarantotti, B.P., Corda, M.G., Paglietti, E., Biggio, G,and Gessa, G.L. (1978). Life Sci., 23, 673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rawitch, A.B., Rohrer, R. and Vandaris, R.M. (1979). Gen Pharmacol., 10, 525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shahar, A. and Bino, T. (1974). Biochem. Pharmacol., 23, 1341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith, C.G., Besch, N.F., Smith, R.G. and Besch, P.K. (1979a). Fertil. Steril., 31, 335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith, C.G., Smith, M.T., Besch, N.F., Smith, R.G. and Asch, R.H. (1979b). In Marihuana: Biological Effects. Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain, Vol. 22/23, ed. G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton (Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York ) p. 449Google Scholar
  56. Smith, R.G., Besch, N.F., Besch, P.K. and Smith, C.G. (1979). Science 204, 325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Soyka, L.F., Joffe, J.M., Peterson, J.M. and Smith, S.M. (1978). Pharmacol. Biochem. Behay., 9, 405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Thomas, J.A. and Dombrosky, J.T. (1975). Arch. Internat. Pharmacodyn. Ther., 215, 215Google Scholar
  59. Thompson, G.R., Mason, M.M., Rosenkrantz, H. and Braude, M.C. (1973). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 25, 373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tokunaga, Y., Muraki, T. and Hosoya, E. (1977). Japan. J. Pharmacol., 27, 65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wang, C., Chan, V. and Yeung, R.T.T. (1978). Clin. Endocrinol., 9, 455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zimmerman, A.M., Bruce, W.R. and Zimmerman, S. (1979). Pharmacology 18, 143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pavel D. Hrdina and Radhey L. Singhal 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Jakubovic
  • Edith G. McGeer
  • Patrick L. McGeer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations